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    2021,40(6):1-6 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.06.001
    [Abstract] (269) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.11 M] (325)
    Abstract:
    Genuine medicinal materials was listed as one of the Ten Leading Agricultural Industry Chains by Hubei Provincial Committee of the CCP and Hubei Provincial People’s Government in 2021.It will provide an unprecedented opportunity for Genuine medicinal materials industry in Hubei province.This paper systematically reviewed the current status of Genuine medicinal materials industry in Hubei Province from three aspects:industrial bases,industrial strength and industrial convergence.In this paper,the advantages of the Genuine medicinal materials industry in Hubei Province,such as the support of policies,the abundance of historic traditional resources,the formation of dominant areas,the outstanding advantages of key species and obvious social benefits were further summerized.As well as,some limits were analyzed such as low quality of development,insufficient local brand,lack of leading enterprises pull,weak science and technology policy,insuffient product research and development and deficiencant integration of three industries.Meanwhile,feasible strategies and measures were put forward to promote the high quality development of Genuine medicinal materials industry in Hubei Province.
    2021,40(6):7-18 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.06.002
    [Abstract] (128) [HTML] (0) [PDF 4.56 M] (219)
    Abstract:
    83 pairs of SSR molecular markers were used to analyze the genetic diversity of 81A. lancea materials and 5 Atractylodes macrocephala in different regions of Hubei Province and to construct DNA fingerprints. At the same time,the phenotypic data and medicinal quality of 86 materials were investigated,and chemical fingerprints were constructed. The results showed that a total of 420 loci were amplified by 83 pairs of SSR primers,and the number of polymorphic loci accounted for 97.14%. The genetic distance of cluster analysis based on SSR molecular markers was 0.63(A. lancea and A. macrocephala can be completely separated). The genetic analysis of the population structure of different populations of materials revealed that the genetic variation originated from within the population,not between the populations. The correlation analysis and cluster analysis of the phenotypic data and the medicinal quality data of the materials tested found that there was a significant positive correlation (P<0.05) between the length of the bottom 4 leaves and the width of the bottom 4 leaves,the culm color,the culm diameter,the plant height,between the depth of leaf cracks and the number of branches in the upper part,between the culm color and the culm shape,and between the culm diameter and the number of branches in the upper part. There was a significant negative correlation between the culm shape and the number of branches in the lower part. The Q value (ratio of oil area and total root area) was significantly negatively correlated with the content of atractylodine. The content of β-eucalyptus was significantly positively correlated with the content of ether extract. The similarity of fingerprints of the materials tested was 0.80-1.00,and the similarity of Atractylodes macrocephala and Atractylodes macrocephala reached 0.89 through comparing the similarity of HPLC chemical fingerprint and analyzing the cluster of shared peak areas after quantification. It is indicated that the genetic background of A. lancea and A. macrocephalaare quite different,and the genetic basis of A. lancea is more complicated than that of A. macrocephala. There are big differences between the two active ingredients,but the difference between A. macrocephala materials is relatively small. Two different varieties of A. lanceaand A. macrocephala can be distinguished from the genetic level. It will provide a theoretical basis for screening and identifying A. lanceolata cultivars with high yield,high quality,disease resistant and high active ingredients.
    2021,40(6):19-26 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.06.003
    [Abstract] (108) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.64 M] (185)
    Abstract:
    SSR primers were designed and developed according to unigenes by analyzing the transcriptome data of Pinellia ternate.The screened SSR primers were used to analyze the genetic diversity among different populations of Pinellia ternata and provide support for molecular marker assisted breeding of Pinellia ternata.The results showed that the selected 19 pairs of primers with high polymorphism detected 49 polymorphic loci in 17 Pinellia populations,indicating that the polymorphism is high.The 17 Pinellia populations were divided into 3 taxa using UPGMA mapping.The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that the variation within the Pinellia population reached 88%,indicating that the difference between populations is relatively small,and the genetic variation mainly comes from between individuals.The average differentiation coefficient Fst between populations was 0.124,and the gene flow Nm value was 1.765,indicating that gene exchange can be carried out normally among populations,and the genetic differentiation among populations is greatly affected by gene flow.The 19 pairs of SSR primers developed by SSR technology in this article have certain versatility and polymorphism among different Pinellia populations,and can clearly distinguish 17 Pinellia materials.
    2021,40(6):27-34 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.06.004
    Abstract:
    Endophytes induced the biosynthesis or accumulation of the active components of the host medicinal plants,making the production and distribution of these active components different in species,organs,tissues and growth stages. F. hupehensis was a geo- authentic crude drug in Enshi area with a long medicinal history. Peiminine B was the main active component in F. hupehensis,with its functions of anti-colonic cancer,relieving myocarditis,alleviating lung injury and etc.We use gas chromatography (GC) to determine the content of peiminine B in bulbs,flowers and leaves of F. hupehensis to explore the content of peiminine B,the composition of endophytes and the antibacterial activity of its secondary metabolites in different tissues of F. hupehensis. The 16S rDNA and ITS sequencing were used to identify the species of endophytic bacteria or fungi,respectively. The agar diffusion method and double dilution method were used to study the antibacterial activity of secondary metabolites of endophytes against 10 strains of bacteria tested. The results showed that the content of peiminine B in leaves of F. hupehensis was the highest with (3.99±0.10) mg/g,which was 1.78 and 4.24 times as much as that in bulb and flower,respectively. Four strains of endophytes were isolated from F. hupehensis,identified as Pseudomonassp. BM-X-6,Arthriniumsp. BM-Z-5,Aspergillus sp. BM-Z-1 and Aspergillus sp. BM-Z-3. The secondary metabolites of three endophytic fungi had stronger antibacterial activity than Pseudomonas sp.BM-X-6. Meanwhile Arthriniumsp. BM-Z-5 had the broadest antibacterial spectrum,which showed moderate antibacterial activities against Klebsiella pneumoniae,Staphylococcus aureus,Micrococcus luteus,Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA). It will provide a reference for expanding the medicinal parts and effectively saving resources of F. hupehensis and will provide a novel way to alleviate bacterial resistance and develop new antibacterial drugs.
    2021,40(6):35-42 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.06.005
    Abstract:
    In order to explore the dynamic change process of the main active components of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. with growth years in Shiyan area,Hubei Province,and to determine the suitable harvest period for the artificial cultivation of Polygonum multiflorumThunb.,HPLC was used to continuously determine the contents of 2,3,5,4′-tetrahydroxystilbene 2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG) and anthraquinones with different forms in different organs of P. multiflorum Thunb. at different growth stages after transplanting. Results showed that the underground dry matter of P. multiflorum Thunb. continued to increase within 3 years after transplanting,with the fastest increase within 2 years and significant decrease of the growth rate in the third year. The decreasing order of the contents of THSG and anthraquinones in different organs of P. multiflorum Thunb. was unexpanded root>root tuber>stem. The contents of THSG and anthraquinones in leaves were very small and difficult to be detected. The contents of THSG and anthraquinones in root of P. multiflorum Thunb. increased almost linearly within 2 years after transplanting,reaching the maximum value in December of the second year. There was no significant difference between the content of THSG and anthraquinones in the third year compared with that in the same period of the second year. The overall difference in the content of THSG and anthraquinones in stems in 3 years was not significant,but there were obvious fluctuations in different seasons,with the highest content in December each year. The quality and yield of P. multiflorumThunb. in Shiyan area in December of the second year after transplanting are relatively optimal,which can be used as a reference for the suitable harvest period of P. multiflorum Thunb. artificially cultivated in this area.
    2021,40(6):43-49 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.006
    Abstract:
    In order to investigate the inhibition effect of Artemisia argyi powder (a by product of A. argyi var. argyi ‘Qiai’ made of moxa) on plant pathogenic fungi and the potential to develop botanical fungicides,A. argyi powder were extracted by water,50% ethanol,ethanol,ethyl acetate and petroleum ether,and the fingerprints of different solvent extracts were established to compare the differences. Meanwhile,the antifungal activity of different extracts was tested to screen the strongest antifungal active parts in the A. argyi powder. In addition,the virulence equation and EC50 value of the ethyl acetate extract against nine kinds of plant pathogenic fungi were determined by the mycelial growth rate method. Finally,the morphological changes of the colonies were observed,and the hyphae microscopic structure and spores were observed by fluorescence inverted microscope. The results showed that polar solvents (ethyl acetate,ethanol and water) had higher extraction rate than non polar solvents (petroleum ether),and there were great differences in the properties and components among the five solvent extracts. Among them,the fingerprints of pure ethanol extract and ethyl acetate extract were similar,and the main components were kaempferol,jaceosidin,eupatilin and other flavonoids. The antifungal activities of the five solvent extracts of A. argyi powder against plant pathogenic fungi were as follows:ethyl acetate>ethanol>50% ethanol>petroleum ether>water. The ethyl acetate extract of the A. argyi powder had significant inhibitory effect on a variety of plant pathogenic fungi,especially on Sclerotium rolfsii,Magnaporth grisea,Gloeosporium theae-sinensis,Alternaria alternata and Cercospora nicotianae,with EC50 values of 1.63,2.88,3.38,5.73 and 5.77 g/L,respectively. Moreover,ethyl acetate extract can also affect the growth and development of plant pathogenic fungi and change their colony morphology by inhibiting mycelial germination and changing the secondary metabolites. Furthermore,microscopic observation showed that the treatment ofethyl acetate extract could reduce the number of spores,shrink the mycelium,enhance the membrane permeability of pathogens,and therefore inhibit their reproduction and growth progress. In conclusion,ethyl acetate extract of A. argyi powder has broad spectrum antifungal activities,which has great potential of developing botanical fungicides.
    2021,40(6):50-59 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.06.007
    Abstract:
    In recent years,the price of Chinese herbal medicines has fluctuated violently on many occasions,with high frequency and large amplitude,which has affected the healthy development of the Chinese medicinal materials industry. Predicting the market price and price index of Chinese herbal medicines is of great significance to the smooth operation and healthy development of the Chinese herbal medicines market. The price index of 30 Chinese herbal medicines from the website of Chinese herbal medicine and the HP-LSTM-MLP hybrid forecasting model was used to predict the price index and comprehensive price index of Chinese medicinal materials,and to compare and analyze with LSTM (Long-short-term memory network),RNN (recurrent neural network),GRU (gated recurrent unit) and other predictive models. Results showed that among the two predictive effect measures of RMSE and R2score,the HP-LSTM-MLP hybrid prediction model has an RMSE of 65.33 and R2score of 0.99,which are better than that of the other three models. Finally,the generalization ability of the HP-LSTM-MLP model was analyzed. The comprehensive price index and single variety price index of 30 main Chinese herbal medicines in China was predicted. The average relative error of the comprehensive price index of Chinese herbal medicines was 1.89%. Among the single varieties,the average relative errors of Coptis,Forsythia and Ophiopogon was 3.36%,5.66% and 3.22%,respectively. It is indicated that the model has good generalization ability and has certain application value for the predicting the price index of Chinese herbal medicines in China.
    2021,40(6):60-67 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.06.008
    Abstract:
    Plastic film mulching (PFM) is one of the most widely applied agricultural technology in China,which changes the distribution of cotton planting regions and greatly improves the development of cotton industry in China. Two methods including on-site investigations and literature and statistical data collection were used to conduct a large scale sampling of the characteristics of mulch film application and residual pollution in main cotton areas in China to obtain first-hand data. At the same time,the application and data of cotton film mulching technology in the past few decades are sorted and summarized. The changing characteristics of cotton production pattern in China were reviewed. The effects of mulching technology on cotton industry in China were analyzed. The characteristics and trends of residual pollution of mulch film in the soil of main cotton farmland were discussed. The results showed that cotton yield increased sharply to today’s 2 000 kg/hm2 in Xinjiang after wide application of PFM technology,which is much larger than that in the Yangtze or Yellow River Basin. Therefore,China’s main cotton planting area has migrated from previous Yangtze and Yellow River Basin to today’s Northwest inland region. However,residue accumulation of plastic film has become a serious problem and affects sustainable development of cotton industry. The residue accumulation of plastic film in the soil after 10 and 20 years of PFM application in Xinjiang was 259.7±36.78 kg/hm2 and 307.9±35.84 kg/hm2,respectively. Therefore,PFM technique will continue to play a key role in maintaining the stability of cotton production,and plastic film pollution will be more and more serious in the future. We must take some powerful actions to control residual pollution of plastic derived from PFM in China.
    2021,40(6):68-74 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.06.009
    Abstract:
    In order to find the regulatory genes related to symbiotic nitrogen fixation in rhizobia,homologous recombination was used to knock out 10 up-regulated genes during the symbiotic nitrogen fixation of Lotus japonicus and  Rhizobium MAFF303099.The results showed that the nitrogenase activity of the Δmlr5883 was 40% lower than that of the wild-type MAFF303099. The morphology of infected cells did not change significantly,and replenishing mlr5883 restored nitrogenase activity. It is predicted that mlr5883 encodes an aspartate aminotransferase. The aspartate aminotransferase activity of this MLR5883 was 16.67 U/mg in vitro. The mutation of mlr5883 affected the efficiency of nitrogen fixation,indicating that it may be involved in the metabolic process of supplying carbon sources to plants.
    2021,40(6):75-83 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.06.010
    Abstract:
    Ferrihydrite is one of the most common iron (oxyhydr)oxides in the environment.Owing to its large specific surface area and unique features of structure,ferrihydrite plays an important role in controlling the transport and fate of various pollutants.As a metastable mineral,ferrihydrite can be transformed into other iron (oxyhydr)oxides under certain conditions.Aluminum (Al) commonly exists in the environment during the formation and transformation of various iron (oxyhydr)oxides,and thus may probably play an important role in the formation and transformation of ferrihydrite,which is rarely explored.In the present study,modern spectroscopy techniques including powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy were used to study the effect of Al3+ substitution on the transformation process of ferrihydrite into hematite.The results showed that self assembly process of primary nanoparticles and Ostwald ripening process was involved in transforming ferrihydrite into hematite.On one hand,Al3+ substitution reduced the conversion rate of ferrihydrite to hematite.On the other hand,Al3+ substitution promotes the conversion of edge-sharing [FeO6] to face-sharing [FeO6],resulting in the transformation of ferrihydrite into hematite.
    2021,40(6):84-90 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.06.011
    Abstract:
    Bi2O3/BiOI step-scheme heterojunction photocatalyst was synthesized with green calcination method and its degradation ability of tetracycline was investigated.The photocatalytic performance of the Bi2O3/BiOI heterojunction,Bi2O3 and BiOI was compared.The structure and morphology of the samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD),X-ray photoelectron spectrograph (XPS).The degradation rate of tetracycline was analyzed with spectrophotometry.The result of calculation showed that the degradation rate of tetracycline was 92.4% in two hours.The first order kinetic rate constant was 0.018 59 min-1.The result of calculation with density functional theory showed that the work function of Bi2O3 and BiOI was 3.0 eV and 6.0 eV,respectively.When this step-scheme heterojunction was used as a photocatalyst,the weaker electrons in the conduction band of BiOI were combined with the weaker holes in the Bi2O3 valence band under the combined effect with built-in electric field and band bending,retaining strong reducing and oxidizing ability of photoelectrons and holes,which may be the reason why Bi2O3/BiOI step-scheme heterojunction has higher photocatalytic activity.
    2021,40(6):91-102 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.06.012
    Abstract:
    According to the relationship between emotional arousal and spatial perception and using the electrical skin signal to represent the degree of emotional arousal,a measurement experiment of emotional arousal in travel situations based on physiological signals was designed to study the relationship between the emotional experience of tourists in the process of traditional rural tourism and the tourism situation and spatial elements,and to establish an analysis framework of tourism situation perception using natural landscape situations,historical and cultural situations,and rural life situations as the main investigation situations,and tourist attractions including viewing,information,and experience as the main spatial elements.Through recruiting 28 experimental participants to conduct field emotion measurement experiments on the experimental path of Pingshan Village,Yixian County,Huangshan City,Anhui Province,the overall emotional arousal degree distribution results of the subjects were obtained,and the questionnaire survey was used to obtain distribution frequency of the spatial elements in the emotional arousal area.The results showed that there are more emotional arousalareas in the historical and cultural situations and local life situations of traditional villages,which are more attractive to tourists.Different attractive elements have different effects in different situations,that is,the overall balanced distribution of attractive elements is the basis for tourists to produce emotional arousal.The elements of ornamental attraction play a key role in the emotional arousal of different types of tourism situations.Information index elements have a basic role in different tourism situations.The experiential space elements need to be controlled in a moderate proportion to cause emotional arousal of tourists.
    2021,40(6):103-111 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.06.013
    Abstract:
    Comprehensive land consolidation in the whole region was born out of the construction of ecological civilization and the strategy of rural revitalization.Because of its scientific content,forward looking planning and comprehensive measures,it has become a new form of land consolidation.1 461 core journals,CSSCI and CSCD literature with the theme of "land consolidation" in CNKI database from 2010 to 2021 were studied with CiteSpace visual literature analysis software.The knowledge map of key words co occurrence,research hotspot evolution time zone and main mutation words was drawn.The research hotspot on land remediation and stage analysis from land remediation to global remediation was carried out.The theoretical context,key areas and cutting-edge dynamics of the two was discussed.The results showed that the research hotspot on land consolidation in China has always focused on the goal of arable land protection from 2010 to 2021,mainly focusing on three aspects including land consolidation,land use and comprehensive land consolidation.Taking arable land protection as the axis,the evolution process of land consolidation since 2010 has been divided into three stages:traditional regulation,ecological transformation and comprehensive land consolidation.Finally,some suggestions for adjusting the regulation concept,improving the regulation efficiency and combining with the rural revitalization strategy under the premise of continuing to adhere to the goal of arable land protection and the construction of ecological civilization were put forward.
    2021,40(6):112-118 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.06.014
    Abstract:
    The shaded fruits in the inner canopy of Orah mandarin and the fruits with sufficient light at the periphery of the canopy were used to compare and analyze the comprehensive effects of light conditions on the appearance,color and internal quality of Orah mandarin. The results showed that the shaded fruits presented a deeper orange red color compared with the fruits with sufficient light. The content of total carotenoid in the peel of the shaded fruits increased by 2.87 times,and the main color pigments β-citraurin (red) and 9-cis-violaxanthin (orange yellow) were increased by 16.93 times and 6.47 times,respectively. The results of gene expression analysis showed that the main structural genes of carotenoid metabolic pathway were significantly up-regulated in shaded fruits. The expression of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD4b),a key gene for β-citraurin biosynthesis,increased by 11.78 times. It is indicated that shading can promote carotenoid accumulation in the peel of Orah mandarin by inducing the expression of genes related to carotenoid biosynthesis,and ultimately make the peel dark orange-red. The content of soluble solids,titratable acid,soluble sugar,organic acid and ascorbic acid in shaded fruit was much lower than that in the fruit with sufficient light,indicating that light conditions affected the internal quality of the fruit. It will provide a theoretical basis for further elucidating the underlying mechanisms of how light regulate fruit quality,and ultimately improving the fruit quality of citrus by breeding and cultivation.
    2021,40(6):119-125 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.06.015
    Abstract:
    The genetic diversity of 78 self-incompatible lines of non-heading Chinese cabbage collected in the author’s laboratory was analyzed and the natural high temperature in summer in Wuhan was used to measure the heat injury indexes in order to screen non heading Chinese cabbage varieties suitable for production under high temperature conditions in summer and to provide germplasm for breeding new heat-tolerant non-heading Chinese cabbage varieties. The results showed that Siji’aijiaotebaigengnaibaicai(Accession No. C72) had the lowest heat injury index among all the lines studied and its plants showed strong tolerance to high temperature. Compared with other lines,C72 had a higher enzymatic activity of both POD and SOD,lower content of malondialdehyde and lower relative conductivity,further indicating that C72 has stronger heat tolerance. It will provide a theoretical basis and germplasm for discovering and screening heat-tolerant non-heading cabbage resources in the Yangtze River Basin in summer,and guarantee the whole-year supply of non-heading Chinese cabbage in the Yangtze River Basin in China in summer.
    2021,40(6):126-133 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.06.016
    Abstract:
    Pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase 1) is an important digestive enzyme that has been used to study the adaptative evolution of some herbivores to herbivorous diet. Although there have been many functional studies of RNase 1 in mammals,there is little research in fish. In this study,we identified and analyzed the RNase 1 genes from 9 cyprinid fish including herbivorous Ctenopharyngodon idella and Megalobrama amblycephala,omnivorous Hypophthalmichthys molitrix,Hypophthalmichthys nobilis,Cyprinus carpio,Xenocypris davidi and Danio rerio,carnivorous Culter alburnus and Elopichthys bambusa. We also detected the relative expression of the RNase 1 gene in different tissues in 4 fish species with different feeding habits (M. amblycephala,A. nobilis,C. alburnus and C. idella). The results showed that there was only one RNase 1 gene in the genomes of the 9 cyprinid fishes,and all the 9 identified fish RNase 1s have the signature motifs of the RNase A superfamily:N-terminal signal peptide,six conserved cysteine residues,the catalytic histidine-lysine-histidine triad and CKXXNTF motif. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all the fish RNase 1s were clustered together. The RNase 1 genes expressed differently in different tissues of the 4 fish with different feeding habits,mainly expressed in the livers but not in the intestines.These results suggest that the evolution of RNase 1 in Cyprinidae is not related to the food habit of the species, but conforms to the evolutionary law of the species.
    2021,40(6):134-140 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.06.017
    Abstract:
    To explore the growth performance of tetraploid offspring of Pengze crucian carp (Carassius auratus pengsenensis)♀×Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpiouar singuonensis)♂,and to explore the development and application prospects of the new Pengze crucian carp variety,the body weight and length data of tetraploid offspring of Pengze crucian carp (PX) and gynogenetic offspring of Pengze carp (PP) at 0,30,60,90,120,150 and 180 d after hatching were taken through the 180 d feeding experiments,and then the growth performance of the two offspring were analyzed. The results showed that during the 180 d experiment,the body weight and body length of PX were significantly different from those of PP. At the end of the experiment,the body weight and body length of PX were 30.18% and 7.70% higher than those of the PP. The absolute weight gain rate of the two groups showed a trend of first increasing,then decreasing and then increasing,reached the maximum at 30-60 d,reached the minimum at 90- 120 d,and the difference between them was significant at 0-90 d and 120-180 d (P<0.05).The absolute growth rate showed the same trend,but there was no significant difference between the two groups after 90 d. It was found that the accumulation volume of the two offspring was different except for 90-150 d (P<0.05),and it reached the maximum value of 0.010 5±0.001 2 at 30-60 d. During 30-180 d,the coefficient of fatness of PX was significantly different from that of PP,indicating that the tetraploid offspring were more obese. The growth curve was obtained by fitting the relationship between body weight and body length in different periods,and the growth curve of PX and PP were:W=0.0320L2.991 5(R2=0.977 9), and W=0.0307L2.9941,R2=0.982 7,respectively. To sum up,the hybrid tetraploid offspring of Pengze crucian carp ♀× Xingguo red carp♂show good growth performance,which has the potential of cultivating new variety of Pengze crucian carp and the value of promotion.
    2021,40(6):141-151 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.06.018
    Abstract:
    In order to explore the development process of the intersecting research field of fishery resources and ecological environment,based on the core data set and extended data set of the research literature from 1900 to 2020 through Web of Science topics retrieval and citation linking method,using CiteSpace software,Bibliometrics analysis was carried out according to the paper year,journal distribution,research power distribution,research topic,hotspot evolution,etc. The results showed that the research process in the interdisciplinary research field of fishery resources and ecological environment could be divided into the budding period (1974-1990),the initial growth period (1991-2003),and the stable growth period (2004-present). The output of a series of research results showed an overall rising trend,and the distribution of journals showed a diversified pattern. Scholars such as Worm and Pauly have played an important role in promoting this intersecting research field,but the connection between China and main international research forces in this intersecting research field needs to be further strengthened. The research topics focus on fishery resource restoration,fishery resource dynamic management,ecosystem restoration,and ecological fisheries cooperative development,etc. The research focuses on topics from the development,utilization and protection of ecological fishery systems to the development,utilization and protection of ecological information fishery system,so as to provide a scientific basis for fishery resources management and ecological fishery models.
    2021,40(6):152-160 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.06.019
    Abstract:
    Jun (Jun proto-oncogene,AP-1 transcription factor subunit) is a subunit or subfamily member of the transcription factor AP-1 and play an important role in host immune response.To further understand the function of jun gene in natural antiviral immunity of fish,the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) was selected as the research fish model,and the homozygous mutant with jun deletion were obtained by CRISPR/CAS9 system and exposed to nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection.Based on the gene cloning,the open reading frame of the medaka jun is 921 bp encoding 306 amino acids,containing N terminal jun super family structure domain and C terminal bZIP family structure domain.The RNA expression was highly detected in all examined tissues including the eyes,brain,gill,heart,kidney,ovary,testis,liver,and spleen.The mutant jun-/- was reduced by 124 bp in the genome,leaving only 59 amino acids N-terminal sequences,and missing the Jun superfamily domain and bZIP domain.Antiviral experiments were then carried out on larval and adult fish of the mutant strain by administrating NNV.The results showed that the disease resistance of larval mutants was enhanced,and the relative content of virus in adult tissues including the eye,brain,gill and muscle were significantly lower than in the wild type.The expression of jun and interferon-related genes fosl1,tbk1and irf3 that was induced by NNV virus were detected by qRT-PCR.It was found that the expression of jun in the mutant was blocked compared to the wild type,the expression of fosl1 and tbk1 was differentially reduced,while the expression of irf3was significantly up-regulated,indicating that the inhibition of jun expression may promote the release of irf3.These results suggest that the jun mutant has the ability of virus tolerance,and jun may be a negative regulator of the antiviral signaling pathway.
    2021,40(6):161-167 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.06.020
    Abstract:
    To explore the regulatory function of the two component system (TCS) in Aeromonas hydrophila,envZ and ompR genes were knocked out via homologous recombination. In vitro,the growth of each strain under different salt concentration stress was tested,the biofilm formation capacity of each strain was compared via the crystal violet staining test,and the resistance to fish blood killing was examined via whole blood killing assay. In vivo,LD50 of each strain was calculated by infecting zebrafish,the systemic invasive ability of each strain in grass carp was compared,and the transcription levels of proinflammatory cytokines were measured by quantitative PCR. The results showed that the ΔenvZ/ompRgrowth did not show significant differences at different salt concentrations in vitro. However,with the deletion of envZ/ompR,the transcription levels of the downstream genes ompF and ompC were significantly affected. ΔenvZ/ompR also showed a significant decrease in biofilm formation and resistance to fish whole blood killing compared with the wild type. In the zebrafish scratch infection model,the LD50 of ΔenvZ/ompRincreased 4.8fold compared to the wild type,indicating reduced virulence. In the ΔenvZ/ompRinfected grass carp,the systemic spreading ability of ΔenvZ/ompRwas significantly weaken,and the transcript levels of pro-inflammatory factors TNF-αand IL-6 were significantly reduced in the spleen,head-kidney,and kidney. Taken together,the above results indicated that the TCS EnvZ/OmpR involved in response to osmotic stress,in the regulation of biofilm formation and in pathogenic processes,especially in the systemic diffusion process in the host.
    2021,40(6):168-175 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.06.021
    Abstract:
    Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a newly emerged enteric coronavirus. In this study,five samples of piglet intestinal contents with diarrhea from two pig farms in Hebei Province were identified to be positive for PDCoV by RT-PCR assay,followed by the virus isolation through inoculation of treated samples on LLC-PK1 cells. The result showed that two PDCoV strains from various pig farms were successfully isolated and named as PDCoV CHN-HeB-A1 and CHN-HeB-B2 strains respectively,which were further identified by indirect immunofluorescence test (IFA),Western blot and electron microscopy assay. The results of IFA and Western blot confirmed that both virus strains can specifically react with monoclonal antibodies against PDCoV M protein. Virus particles with a diameter of 100-150 nm and a typical crown shape were obviously observed under electron microscopy,verifying both virus strains to be PDCoV. The results of whole genome sequencing and genetic evolution analysis showed that both PDCoV strains were homologous to the Chinese strain,with the similarity ranging from 98.7% to 99.1%,which were in the same cluster as the Hong Kong strain.
    2021,40(6):176-185 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.06.022
    Abstract:
    In order to develop phage endolysin as a novel antibacterial agent for the prevention and control of Salmonella,the endolysin of Salmonella Typhimurium phage T139 was obtained by bioinformatics and heterologous expression of protein. The lytic activity of endolysin against Salmonella Typhimurium was verified. The genome of Salmonella Typhimurium phage T139 was analyzed and found to be 38 854 bp long,with an average GC content of 49.10% and no tRNA gene. The results of evolutionary tree analysis showed that phage T139 is belonged to the genus T7 phage with 43 ORFs predicted in total,23 ORFs being assigned known functions. The results of multiple sequence alignment and conserved structural domain analysis showed that the protein encoded by the orf 40 gene (LysT40) containing 126 amino acid residues with a conserved structural domain of phage endopeptidase,making it a possible phage endolysin. The presence of a large number of helical structures (70.63%) in the secondary structure of LysT40 allows the protein to maintain the stable structure. The endopeptidase gene orf 40 was heterologously expressed,purified and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot to obtain a single target protein band at 10-15 ku at a purified protein concentration of 280 μg/mL. LysT40 had significantly lytic activity against chloroform or EDTA pretreated Salmonella Typhimurium within 30 min,with absorbance values OD600 decreasing by 0.18 and 0.31 compared to the control. It will provide a basis for developing phage endolysin as antimicrobial agents to control SalmonellaTyphimurium.
    2021,40(6):186-194 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.06.023
    Abstract:
    The changes of nutrients,volatile substances and antioxidant properties during the compound fermentation of Goji juice by Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum were investigated with HPLC and HS-SPME-GC-MS.The results showed that lactic acid bacteria grew well in Goji juice,and the pH value was significantly reduced.During the fermentation process,lactic acid bacteria used saccharose,glucose,and fructose as carbon sources to produce acid,and the content of lactic acid,acetic acid and aminobutyric acid were significantly increased,while the content of oxalic acid,malic acid and citric acid were decreased significantly.The composition and content of phenolic substances in Goji juice were significantly changed after fermentation.The content of protocatechuic acid was not detected in unfermented Goji juice,and increased to 40.55 μg/mL after fermentation.The content of catechins,p-hydroxybenzoic acid,3-hydroxycinnamic acid,and myricetin increased by 13.44%,42.40%,170.73% and 12.30%,respectively.Fermentation of lactic acid bacteria changed the composition and content of volatile components in Goji juice.The content of alcohols,acids,and olefins increased,while some substances including aldehydes and ketones decreased,and volatile components such as ethanol,1-hexanol,and linalool were newly produced after fermentation.The antioxidant capacity of Goji juice was significantly improved as well.The DPPH free radical scavenging rate,total reducing power and oxygen radical absorbance capacity increased by 21.42%,14.18%,and 51.75%,respectively.
    2021,40(6):195-202 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.06.024
    Abstract:
    Tender buds of E’cha NO.10 from Xuanen County,Hubei Province were processed into dry tea according to different shaping methods including baking,carding,rolling and rubbing and carding leaves with different moisture content of 40%,37%,33% and 30%. The tea quality including appearance and components of main liquor quality was analyzed by sensory evaluation and physical-chemical test to study the effects of shaping methods on the tea quality and obtain the optimal shaping method of strip famous green tea. Results showed that the shape quality of tea was affected by different shaping methods. The scores of carding and rubbing were significantly higher than that of baking and rolling. Different shaping methods had important effects on the color of dry tea and tea soup. Taking various factors into consideration,the shape of tea by carding was tight and beautiful,and the overall quality was the best. With the decrease of moisture content of carding leaves,the strip of tea became tighter and the aroma concentration became higher. However,the green and luster of the dry tea and infused leaves decreased obviously,and the color became darker. The contents of total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a decreased significantly,while the contents of amino acids increased. The contents of tea polyphenols,soluble sugar and chlorophyll b did not change significantly. Combined with tea sensory evaluation and physicochemical index,the leaves with moisture content of 33%-37% after carding were the best.
    2021,40(6):203-210 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.06.025
    Abstract:
    This article carried out two single factor simulation experiments based on computational fluid dynamics software to study the effects of different speeds (60,120,180,240 r/min) on the slurry circulation and the effects of different heating temperatures (45,50,55,60℃) on the temperature increase of the slurry at a certain speed in order to study characteristics of the flow and heat transfer of the slurry in the internal circulation slurry aerobic fermentation reactor,and to further optimize the working parameters of the reactor. To verify the computational model,a bench reactor was built to collect actual data of flow velocity distributed at the outlet of the diversion tube and temperature on the wall of the kettle body. The results showed that when the rotation speed of the stirrer was 120 r/min,the speed range of the non stirring domain was 0.01-0.27 m/s,and the velocity vector had smaller fluctuations. A rotation speed of 120 r/min had a higher rate of circulation,with a circulation flow rate per revolution of stirrer of 3.77 L/r. When heating temperature of the wall was 55℃,heating at 120 r/min for 5 min increased the average temperature of the slurry from 15.00℃ to 36.98℃,indicating that the heating effect is obvious. The agreement between the measured results and the simulated results was good. The relative standard deviation between the measured value and the simulated value of the flow rate was 14.29%. The relative standard deviation between the measured value and the simulated value of the temperature was 10.78%. It was proved that the computational model is an effective way of describing the complex and dynamic circulation process of the stirring bioreactor. It will provide a theoretical basis for optimizing the working parameters of reactor.
    2021,40(6):211-219 , DOI: DOI:10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.06.026
    Abstract:
    In order to meet the sustainability of future food supply and consumers’ demand for nutrition and health,plant based meat products have received continuous attention from the market in recent years. Although plant-based meat products with fibrous textures have been prepared,having the same nutrition and sensory attributes as animal meat tissues is the ultimate goal of structure design of plant-based meat products. We describes the structure and function of animal meat components,summarizes the raw material composition and processing technology of plant-based meat products,and compares the differences between plant-based meat products and animal meat. Finally,the direction that needs to be explored in the construction of plant based meat products is proposed from the perspective of structure design including optimizing plant-based fibrosis technology,developing new protein resources,constructing adipose tissue and connective tissue equivalents,and regulating characteristics and flavors. It is expected to provide a reference for the development of novel plant-based meat products.
    2021,40(6):220-230 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.06.027
    Abstract:
    The quality detection of poultry egg is an important safeguard for food safety and consumer rights.Traditional methods of detection mainly rely on manual labor,which has disadvantages including high intensity of work,low efficiency,and large fluctuations in accuracy.Spectral detection technology has the advantages of fast,safe,non-destructive,so it has developed rapidly in detecting internal quality of poultry eggs in recent years.This article summarizes the progress of near-infrared spectroscopy,visible-near-infrared spectroscopy,hyperspectral imaging technology and Raman spectroscopy in the non-destructive detection of poultry eggs internal quality including freshness,protein content,fat content,blood spot and meat spot,information of fertilization,sex of breeding egg and viability of egg embryo.The characteristics and difficulties of applying spectral detection technology in non-destructive testing of poultry eggs are analyzed.The development trend of spectroscopic technology is prospected.It will provide technical support for supervising the quality and safety of egg industry in China.
    2021,40(6):231-245 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.06.028
    Abstract:
    The Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress passed the Biosafety Lawof the People’s Republic of China (referred to as the Biosafety Law) and came into force since April 15,2021. The Biosafety Law is the first framework law of biosafety with a fundamental and overall nature in China,which only stipulates basic principles and requirements. The security of research and application of biotechnology,the biosafety of pathogenic microorganism laboratories,and the prevention of bioterrorism and biological weapons threats are the three main contents of the eight aspects of biosafety risks involved in the Biosafety Law,and synthetic biology is closely related to these three aspects. Synthetic biology,as a hotspot of global research and disruptive cutting-edge biotechnology in recent years,can be applied to artificially synthesized viruses or bacteria. There are risks and threats of creating bioterrorism and biological weapons,and its regulation is of great concern as well. This article first expounds the significance of implementing the Biosafety Law to the development of biotechnology safety,then introduces the definition and development of synthetic biology,analyzes the risks faced by synthetic biology,reviews the regulation of synthetic biology among different countries,and points out that the introduction of the Biosafety Law has established a framework for the management of synthetic biology in China. Finally,it proposes how to better strengthen the prevention and control of synthetic biology risks at the legal and technical levels.
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    Abstract:
    In order to explore the dynamic changes in the quality of the taste-type tomato during the growth period, to guide the cultivation and establish a suitable harvest period, it can be planted in the demonstration base of the Vegetable Research Institute of Wuhan Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Five different varieties of taste-type tomatoes are used as research materials, and the dynamic changes of the color, texture, vitamin C, soluble sugar, titratable acid, lycopene, minerals and other physical properties and nutritional components of the fruits in different physiological periods are analyzed. The results showed that during the fruit ripening process, the hardness gradually decreased and the red color gradually deepened. The soluble solids, Vc, glucose, and fructose content all showed a change pattern of first increasing and then decreasing, and reached the maximum during the ripening period; sugar to acid ratio, tomato Red pigment and soluble sugar showed a gradual upward trend as a whole; soluble protein, titratable acid, and malic acid showed a gradual downward trend. There are also significant differences in the content of certain minerals in the same variety of tomatoes in different growth periods. The ripening period is determined to be the most suitable harvest period for taste-type tomatoes. At this time, the variety NT31 has higher nutritional value and commercial products value.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    Rice-crayfish integrated system (RC) is a high-efficiency ecological agricultural system which combined the rice planting and crayfish culturing. In order to explore the impact of RC on the microbiome of paddy water, the water microbial diversity and community structure of RC and rice monoculture system (RM) were determined by using 16S rDNA amplicon high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that RC significantly improved the microbial diversity. The microbial community structure of paddy water was significantly different between RC and RM, which may contribute by water physi-chemical factors, such as total nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen. The relative abundances of Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria were significantly higher in RC than RM, while the relative abundances of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were lower in RC than RM. Actinomycetales, Rhizobiales, and Synechococcales are the main biomarkers of water microbiome in RC, while Flavobacteriales, Betaproteobacteriales, and Rhodocyclales are the main biomarkers in RM. Furthermore, through functional prediction and relative abundance comparison, we found that the metabolic capacity of water microbiome in RC was significantly higher than that in RM, especially the relative abundance of energy metabolism pathway was significantly higher than that in RM. In conclusion, RC shaped a better water microbiome with higher diversity, more stable structure, and more powerful function, and improved the material cycle and energy utilization rate of paddy ecosystem. Those results provide the fundamental for microbial resource utilization in rice-crayfish integrated system.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    There are several challenges in the development of rice industry, such as keeping the rice area stable, ensuring effective linkage between production and demand, breeding breakthrough varieties, increasing famers’ income for rice planting and developing practical lightweight and high-yield technologies. The development of rice industry shows a trend towards large-scale production with high-quality varieties, intelligent technologies and concurrent operation, accompanied by personalized consumption. Based on which, we put forward the countermeasures focusing on ensuring high quality supply, optimizing policy system, strengthen scientific and technological support, and improving market regulation.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    Under the trend of green and low-carbon in agriculture, the green pest control technologies are very important to ensure the safety of food production. Also, the wide application of these green pest control techniques will promote the sustainable development of agriculture. In recent years, China has been made great progress in the research and application of green pest control techniques to manage rice pests. The newly progress of research and application of green rice pest control in China are reviewed from five aspects: ecological regulation and management, agronomic cultivation measures, physical control technologies, biological control and precise chemical control. The representative techniques, including the ecological engineering technology, the Fan-inhaling Lamp and the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) low-volume spraying technology for paddy field, are the most important methods to support green rice pest control. In prospect, the regional and characteristic integration for green pest control techniques together with the policy supporting and technology training, will further improve their importance in reduction of the amount of pesticides and the green production of rice.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    N fertilizer application plays an important role in maintaining food security in China. However, over-application of N fertilizer results in the reduction in nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and a series of environmental problems. Simultaneous increase in yield and NUE has been a big challenge in agricultural production since 21st century, and attracted lots of research endeavors. Here, we introduced the rational and technique of typical N fertilizer management practices; summarized the progress in high NUE rice breeding, especially the Green Super Rice; reviewed the physiological and molecular mechanisms of high NUE, focusing on the effect of nitrogen on photosynthetic physiology and the important genes regulating NUE.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    Abstract: [Objective] in order to explore the comprehensive effects of different forms of Molybdenum Fertilizer on the yield, quality and mineral nutrient content of Chinese cabbage, we took the varieties of "Shanghaiqing" and "Aijiaohuang" of Chinese cabbage as the experimental objects, the random block experimental design was used to carry out field experiment and pot experiment respectively. A total of 6 treatments were set up: no fertilization (CK), habitual fertilization (NPK), habitual fertilization+ potassium molybdate (K2MoO4, recorded as NPK+ KMo), habitual fertilization+ ammonium molybdate (H32Mo7N6O28, recorded as NPK+ AMo), habitual fertilization+ molybdenum oxide (MoO3, recorded as NPK+ BMO) and habitual fertilization+ nano molybdenum oxide (MoO3 NPs, recorded as NPK+ NMo). The differences in yield, quality and mineral nutrient content of Chinese cabbage after applying different forms of molybdenum fertilizer were compared and analyzed. [Results] compared with NPK treatment, each molybdenum application treatment could significantly improve the fresh quality of field Chinese cabbage, among which NPK+ AMo treatment had the best effect, which increased 32.7%. For potted Chinese cabbage, NPK+ NMo and NPK+ AMo treatment could significantly improve the fresh quality of field Chinese Cabbage by 30.8% and 30.2% respectively; each molybdenum application treatment could improve the soluble protein and vitamin D of field Chinese cabbage Compared with NPK treatment, NPK+ AMo and NPK+ NMo treatment significantly reduced the nitrate content of Chinese cabbage, 18.9% and 14.9% respectively; NPK+ NMo treatment significantly increased the content of soluble protein and ascorbic acid, 25.8% and 50.2% respectively; NPK+ AMo and NPK + NMO treatment significantly increased the nitrate content of Chinese cabbage compared with NPK treatment, The content of reducing sugar in Chinese cabbage heart increased by 23.8% and 30.2% respectively; for potted Chinese cabbage, NPK + amo and NPK + NMo treatment significantly reduced the nitrate content in the shoot of Chinese Cabbage by 27.8% and 29.4% respectively compared with NPK treatment; Compared with NPK treatment, NPK+ NMo treatment could significantly increased the contents of soluble protein, ascorbic acid and reducing sugar by 86.5%, 64.0% and 22.2% respectively; Compared with NPK treatment, each molybdenum application treatment could significantly increase the Cu and Mo contents of Chinese cabbage in the field, by 31.4% and 79.1% respectively. In addition, this treatment significantly increased the Mg content, by 55.5%; For potted Chinese cabbage, compared with NPK treatment, the content of Mg and Mo in aboveground parts of Chinese cabbage treated with NPK+ NMo increased significantly, 74.31% and 96.88% respectively, while the content of Zn in NPK+ AMo treatment was significantly different from that in NPK treatment, increased by 52.2%. [Conclusion] on the basis of habitual fertilization, increasing the application of different forms of molybdenum fertilizer can improve the yield, nutritional quality and mineral nutrient content of field Chinese cabbage and potted Chinese cabbage, improve the edible value, reduce the nitrate content and improve the edible safety. In general, the effect of increasing the application of NMO is the best, followed by amo, This study provides data support for the application of molybdenum fertilizer in agricultural production.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    China is a big country of apple producers and exporters, so it is essential to control the quality of exported apples, and the soluble solids content (SSC) of apples is an essential factor affecting them. Non-destructive inspection of apple's SSC can be realized by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR). A robust multi-variety Apple general model combines the model updating with waveband selection to predict the SSC of five varieties (Red Fuji, Green Apple, Golden Delicious, Rose, and Lokit). The result suggests that model update method can realize high-precision prediction of SSC, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 0.698%, the correlation coefficient of prediction (RP) is 0.904, the prediction deviation is 0.074% and the Ratio of performance to standard deviate (RPD) up to 2.340. In order to identify and extract the important information wavebands of the spectrum. Three waveband selection methods are adopted to optimize models, and these methods respectively are competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), successive projections algorithm (SPA) and uninformative variable elimination (UVE). The results show that CARS can select effective wavebands more effectively and improve the model performance: RMSEP = 0.587%, RP = 0.928, the prediction deviation is reduced to -0.052%, RPD = 2.684. Therefore, the strategy of combining model updating with waveband selection has good potential application prospects in researching and developing multi-variety fruit's general model of the portable near-infrared detector.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    Aiming at the problems of high rolling rate, poor alignment stability of manual-operated crawler harvester and low field operation accuracy of existing electric crawler machinery for ratoon rice harvesting in the first season, a set of dual-motor crawler chassis automatic navigation system is designed and tested. Based on the self-designed dual-motor crawler chassis for the rice harvesting, the relationship between the steering radius of the chassis and the speed of the driving motors on both sides is derived on the basis of the field slip model, and then an automatic navigation fuzzy controller is designed. The dual-antenna RTK-GNSS is used to obtain the real-time position and heading angle information of the dual-motor crawler chassis. The lateral fuzzy correction controller of the automatic navigation system and the PID controller of the motor speed on both sides control the motor speed in real time to realize the automatic tracking of the working path. The road test shows that when the dual-motor crawler chassis is driven at 0.6 m/s and 1.0 m/s, the average lateral deviation of the automatic navigation system is 0.015 m and 0.021 m respectively. The field test shows: when the driving speed is 0.6 m/s, the average lateral deviation of the automatic navigation system is 0.050 m. Compared with the navigation system modified by electronically controlled hydraulic steering, this navigation system has accurate control, fast response, and small tracking error. It can be used for the operation of ratoon rice in the first season to reduce the rolling rate.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    Manual sorting of defective citrus fruit on the production line is time-consuming and cost-expensive. This paper presents a sorting solution based on machine vision and CNN-Transformer. The system can be directly implemented on various citrus processing lines for online sorting. For the citrus fruits randomly rotating on the conveyor, a detection algorithm Mobile-Citrus based on convolutional neural network (CNN) was developed to detect and temporarily classify the defective one, and a tracking algorithm Tracker-Citrus was used to record the classification information along the path. The real category of the fruit was identified using the historical information, reaching tracking accuracy of 98.4% and classification accuracy of 92.8%. In addition, a trajectory prediction algorithm based on Transformer was used to predict the future path of fruit with the average prediction error of 2.96 pixels, which can be used to guide the robot arm to sort defective citrus in real time. The experimental results show that the proposed method can be applied to citrus production lines for online sorting.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    In order to determine the appropriate nitrogen (N) fertilizer application rate under straw returning in the black soil of central Northeast China, a site-specific field experiment from 2017 to 2020 was conducted in Gongzhuling County of Jilin Province, to analyze the effects of different N fertilizer rates (0, 70, 140, 210, 280 and 350 kg/hm2) on maize yield, N fertilizer utilization efficiency and soil N balance under straw returning, and to explore the relationship among N fertilizer rate, yield and N surplus rate under straw return. The results showed that the maize yield first increased and then decreased with the increase of N fertilizer application rate under straw returning condition, but the amount of N application to obtain the highest yield was decreasing with the extension of experiment, reduced by 16.3%. Cumulative agronomic efficiency, recovery efficiency and partial factor productivity of N application all decreased with increasing N fertilizer application. Soil nitrogen balance results showed that soil nitrogen residues were significantly increased when N application exceeded 210 kg/hm2 and increased by 13.0% and 33.6% at high N application rates (280 and 350 kg/hm2) compared with the soil before planting, respectively, while their cumulative apparent N losses reached 578 and 833 kg/hm2. The correlation analysis between nitrogen surplus rate with nitrogen fertilizer rate, grain yield, N recovery efficiency and nitrogen loss showed that the nitrogen fertilizer rate was 188.9 kg/hm2, yield was 11850 kg/hm2, N recovery efficiency was 40.1% and nitrogen loss was 65.7 kg/hm2 when the surplus rate was 0. The results showed that the appropriate N fertilizer rate under straw returning conditions could significantly improve maize yield and N use efficiency, and reduce the apparent N loss. Considering the crop yield, theoretical surplus rate and apparent soil N balance, the appreciate N fertilizer application range was 179.5~198.4 kg/hm2 under long-term straw incorporation in the study area.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    In order to reveal the impact of different sowing dates and supplementary water periods on the production of dry-farming rice, field experiments were conducted by using water-saving and drought-resistant rice "Hanyou 73" as the material, and setting different sowing dates (T1, May 30; T2, June 9th, farmers’ customary practices; T3, June 19th) and different supplementary irrigation periods (W1, tillering stage + booting stage irrigation; W2, tillering stage + heading flowering stage irrigation supplement, farmers’ customary practices; W3, tillering stage + milk maturity supplementing water during the period) to comprehensively investigate the effects of sowing date and supplementary irrigation on the growth and development, yield and quality, and resource utilization efficiency of rice under dry cultivation. The results showed that: (1) Compared with T2, when the sowing date was advanced, the plant height, number of tillers, yield, and water use efficiency of rice increased significantly, of which yield reached 11.03 t/hm2 with an increase of 16.72%. At the same time, the chalkiness significantly reduced, and the economic benefit increased by 15.81%. When the sowing date was delayed, the yield and total water use efficiency were significantly reduced, and the rice quality did not change significantly. (2) Compared with W2, W1 significantly increased rice yield and water use efficiency, but rice quality did not change significantly. W3 was more significant in the improvement of yield, water use efficiency and economic benefits, reaching 11.67 t/hm2, 3.33 kg/m3 and 15028 y/hm2, respectively. At the same time, rice quality was significantly improved. Therefore, for the rice (drought)-wheat annual rotation system in Hubei Province, the sowing date should be appropriately advanced, and sowing before mid-June; and priority should be given to irrigation and water supply during the tillering period and the milk-filling period.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    Protein requirements are affected by the growth stage. Generally, early-life-stage crayfish usually have higher protein requirements. An 8-week experiment was performed to investigate the effects of different dietary protein levels on growth performance, body composition and antioxidant capacity of Procambarus clarkii at three different growth stages. ① With the increase in dietary protein level, WGR and SGR of crayfish was first increased and then stabilized in the three different growth stages. ② With the increase in dietary protein level, the FCR was first decrease and then stability. ③ In the first and second growth stage, the crude protein was first increased and then stabilized; in the third growth stage, the lowest crude protein content was observed in the group fed with 250 g/kg dietary protein. ④ With the increase in dietary protein level, both the superoxidase dismutase (SOD) activity and the phenoloxidase (PO) activity were increase in the first and second growth stage; in the third growth stage, after the dietary protein levels exceeded 300 g/kg, both the superoxidase dismutase (SOD) activity and the phenoloxidase (PO) activity were decrease. Based on these findings and a broken-line model of specific growth rate, 403.3 g/kg, 358.8 g/kg and 305.6 g/kg were determined to be the optimal diet protein levels for the crayfish with initial body weight of 0.026 g, 1.04 g and 5.06 g, respectively.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    Procambarus clarkii were fed coated with florfenicol 0 (C0 group, control group), 10 (C10 group), 20 (C20 group) and 30 mg / kg (C30 group) for 20 days followed by a period of feeding without florfenicol for 15 days to evaluate the elimination pattern. The activities of hepatopancreatic phase I drug metabolizing enzymes 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECOD), 7-ethoxyisophenoxazolone-O-deethylase (EROD), aniline-4-hydroxylase (AH), erythromycin-N-demethylase (ERND), aminopyrine-N-demethylase (AND), phase II drug metabolizing enzymes glutathione-S-transferase (GST), sulfotransferase (SULT), uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) were measured. Alterations in the expression levels of Cytochrome P450 (CYP450), GST, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and metallothionein (MT) mRNA were measured. The results showed that florfenicol significantly reduced phase Ⅰ metabolic enzymes activities but increase phase Ⅱ metabolic enzymes activities (P < 0.05). The results of gene expression showed that florfenicol could induce CYP450 gene expression up-regulated. 10 mg / kg florfenicol induced GST gene expression up-regulated, but 20 mg / kg and 30 mg / kg florfenicol could inhibit GST gene expression. The inconsistency between gene expression and enzyme activity showed that there was no inevitable relationship between gene transcription and protein synthesis; 10mg / kg florfenicol maintains the homeostasis of the body by inducing the expression of HSP70, MT and other proteins, but high-dose florfenicol goes beyond the scope of action of the body and causes damages to the organism. Except GST, activities of other metabolic enzymes returned to normal level in C10 group after 15 days of elimination experiment. The expression levels of four genes mRNA in C10 group also returned to the initial level. For the sake of safety, when feeding Procambarus clarkia with florfenicol, the recommended dose of florfenicol is 10 mg / kg, which is not only conducive to give full play to the efficacy without being excluded from the body prematurely, but also avoid the body damage and accumulation of Procambarus clarkii caused by too high dose of florfenicol.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    To investigate the effects of biochar from different feedstocks on acidic soil improvement, nitrogen mineralization and nitrification, we used acidic red soil as the test soil, and biochar prepared from rice straw, rice husk and sawdust were added to carry out a 50 days indoor culture experiment. The experiment included five treatments: CK (control), F (single application of chemical fertilizer), B1 (rice straw biochar with chemical fertilizer), B2 (rice husk biochar with chemical fertilizer), B3 (wood biochar with chemical fertilizer), through determined soil basic physic-chemical properties, enzyme activity and the contents of ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen to analyze the relationship between soil properties and nitrogen transformation. Results showed that the improvement effect of rice straw biochar on soil pH was higher than that of sawdust biochar and rice husk biochar. Compared with CK and F treatment, the soil pH in B1 treatment increased by 0.10 and 0.64 units respectively. And the contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium in B1 treatment were also significantly higher than those in other treatments. The application of fertilizer (F) and biochar (B1, B2, B3) significantly increased the soil nitrogen mineralization rate and nitrification rate, and there were significant differences in different biochar treatments. Throughout the 50-d incubation, the average nitrogen mineralization rates in B1, B2 and B3 treatments decreased by 81.5%, 87.6% and 28.1% respectively compared with F treatment. Compared with F treatment, treatment B1 and B3 could hold soil nitrate nitrogen and increase the nitrification rate by 12.0% and 16.0% respectively, while B2 treatment reduced the nitrification rate by 18.5%. In addition, the soil carbon and nitrogen cycle-related enzymes activity in different biochar treatments were also significantly different. Results indicated biochar from different feedstocks have different effects on the physic-chemical properties of acidic red soil, and the differences of soil properties could affect the nitrogen transformation. Rational application of biochar can hold soil nitrogen and reduce nitrogen loss.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    Rice is one of the major food crops in our country. High yield and good quality are not only the focus of rice fundamental research, but also the main goal of rice breeding project. Rice quality, comprised of milling quality, appearance quality, sensory quality, and nutritional quality, is a complexed trait which is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. This article summarizes the recent progress on rice quality, including rice quality classification and factors that influence rice quality, focusing on genetic basis and molecular improvement of rice quality, and discussed the prospect of rice quality research. Sensory is a key quality trait that determines whether rice is delicious or not and Wx is the major gene that controls rice sensory quality. Wx, encoding a granular-bound starch synthase, is the major gene that influences rice amylose content, gel consistency, RVA and taste. Variation on Wx leads to different content of amylose content, ranging from 0%-30%, and different gel consistency and taste score. ALK and fgr, responsible for rice gelatinization temperature and fragrance respectively, also influence rice sensory quality. GS3, GW5 and Chalk5 are the major genes that are responsible for the diversity of rice grain length, grain width and grain chalkiness, which are the major components of rice appearance quality. Molecular marker-assisted selection and genome editing of these important rice quality genes have achieved great progresses on rice molecular breeding. Yet, the genetic basis of rice overall quality is still poorly understood and the quality of most commercial rice varieties in our country is still not good. More studies are still needed to fully uncover the genetic basis of rice quality and to improve the quality of main planting rice varieties
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    Peel puffing is a prevalent physiological disorder of Mandarin fruits. Based on the analysis and summary of literature at home and abroad,the fruit main symptoms and quality characteristics,occurrence conditions and formation process of fruit peel puffing were clear illustrated. As out-of-step fruit peel development was the main mechanism for puffing,authors suggested that three aspects of source-sink supply,competition-restraint and integrated coordination should be future research in-depth,and the hard problem of citrus fruit puffiness should be strived and solved by combination of “integrated coordination”and “targeted regulation”.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    How to increase agricultural productivity with less resources and less impacts on the environment has been a great challenge to geneticists and breeders in the all world. Chinese scientists therefore proposed the notion of "Green Super Rice" (GSR) that promotes resource-saving and environment-friendly rice production coupled with increasing grain yield and quality. A large number of functional genes identified for desired traits such as high yield and superior quality, resistance to pests and diseases, tolerance to abiotic stresses, and high nutrient-use efficiency, have provided a rich resource for developing GSR in the breeding programs. Through the novel breeding strategies established with genomic selection and gene-specific selection, a batch of GSR cultivars with multiple desirable genes have been developed and widely adopted in China and other countries. The practices and achievements of GSR have led to a paradigm shift of the goals and models of crop genetic improvement. Here, we review the concept, development and achievements of GSR, and provide perspectives of developing green and nutritious rice cultivars to enhance the development of green agriculture.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    Analyzing the yield effects and its influencing factors of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer application in rice production of Yangtze Valley region, and providing a scientific basis for nutrient management in rice planting areas. The data collected from the rice field experiments conducted by the international plant nutrition institute (IPNI) and the literature searched on CNKI database for keywords “rice” and “rice + yield” in the Yangtze Valley region of China, and there are 1107, 745 and 785 groups data to analyze the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer application on yield by using Meta analysis. With none fertilization treatment as control and response ratio as the yield increase effect value, Meta analysis method was used to explore the comprehensive effect of fertilization on rice yield and the influence of factors, such as soil basic fertility, planting area, soil organic matter, pH and soil physical and chemical properties. Compared with the treatment without N, P, or K fertilizers, the application of N, P, and K fertilizers in the Yangtze River Basin significantly increased rice yield by 35.1%, 10.9%, and 11.9%, respectively, of these, nitrogen fertilizer had the highest yield increase effect. There was the significant effect on the yield-increasing effects of rice under different soil fertility levels. The highest yield-increasing effects were attained at low-fertility soils (yield﹤5.0 t/hm2) for nitrogen, phosphate and potassium fertilizers, which are 45.9%,15.1% and 17.0%, respectively. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers application effects had the obvious different among provinces and cities in the Yangtze Valley region, Shanghai attained the highest effect of nitrogen application with 43.9%, while Chongqing achieved the highest effect of the phosphorus and potassium with 16.4% and 16.1%, respectively. The application of fertilizer has the best yield-increasing effect under alkaline soil conditions for nitrogen fertilizer, while under weakly acidic (pH 6.0—7.0) soil conditions have the highest yield-increasing effects for phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, with accounting for 39.0%, 14.1%, and 15.7%, respectively. There are significant differences in the yield-increasing effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers application among different soil organic matter contents, while phosphate fertilizer is not. When total soil nitrogen is less than 1.0 g/kg, total phosphorus is greater than 0.9 g/kg, total potassium is less than 13.0 g/kg, alkali hydrolyzed nitrogen is less than 100 mg/kg, available phosphorus is less than 9.0 mg/kg, and available potassium is less than 70.0 mg/kg, the effect of nitrogen application is the best; when soil total phosphorus﹤0.3 g/kg, total potassium﹥20.0 g/kg, alkali hydrolyzed nitrogen﹥150.0 mg/kg, available phosphorus﹤9.0 mg/kg, available potassium﹤at 70.0 mg/kg, both phosphorus and potassium fertilizers had the best yield-increasing effect. The application of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers for middle rice in the Yangtze Valley had a significant yield increase effect, and nitrogen fertilizer has the highest yield increase rate. Low-fertility soils help to increase the yield-increasing effect of fertilization, but soil pH and different soil physical and chemical properties affect the yield-increasing effect of fertilization, resulting in the differences in the yield-increasing effects of fertilization among different provinces and cities in the Yangtze River Valley. The yield-increasing effects of applying nitrogen fertilizer were highest on soils with lower soil alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium contents, respectively. There were the high yield-increasing effects of applying phosphorus and potassium fertilizers at the condition of high soil alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen and low available phosphorus and potassium contents. The application of nitrogen fertilizer in alkaline soil, while application of phosphate fertilizer and potassium fertilizer in weakly acidic soil had the best yield increase effects. Therefore, rice nutrient management in each planting area should be comprehensively considered in consideration of soil pH, organic matter, and soil physical and chemical properties as the basis for fertilizer application.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    Estrogen is an essential steroid hormone that promotes fish gonad development and maintains reproductive function, contributing to regulate energy metabolism and growth development. Estrogen receptors (ERs) are the key receptor that mediate estrogen regulation in multiple tissues and organs. Therefore, ERs may be related to fish growth and gonadal development. In this study, we cloned the coding sequences (CDS) of estrogen receptor genes in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), including ERα (1 904 bp), ERβ1 (1842 bp) and ERβ2 (2 609 bp). Through comparing the homology of ERs among different species, we found that the ERs of M. amblycephala share high similarity with carp, goldfish and zebrafish. To analyze the relationship between ERs and gonad and growth, we collected one-year, two-year, and three-year old M. amblycephala, and selected individuals with fast growth (FG) and slow growth (SG) at each age stage. The expression of ERs in the gonad and muscles of M. amblycephala at different ages was analyzed. The results showed that in the early stage of gonadal development, ERa tended to play an important role in growth rather than gonad development. At the metaphase of gonadal development, ERα had an effect on gonad development, and ERβ1 replaced the effect of ERa in growth. After gonadal maturation, the expression of ERα and ERβ1 in the FG group was significantly higher than the SG group, but the expression difference of ERβ1 between FG and SG groups was only shown in males, while ERα affected both males and females. In addition, the expression difference of ERβ2 between FG and SG groups was contrary to that of ERα and ERβ1, which inhibit growth in the early and middle stages of gonadal development. Taken together, ERs could promote the gonads and growth of fish to a certain extent. Meantime, ERα, ERβ1 and ERβ2 might form a complex regulatory system to influence with each other and jointly regulate body growth and gonadal development.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    In order to explore the immune-regulation function of 6-Shogaol in fish, the growth rate, the production of intracellular reactive oxygen (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (MDA), antioxidant enzyme activity, and key genes expression in inflammatory and antioxidant pathways were detected in zebrafish liver cells incubated with different concentrations of 6-Shogaol for 48 h. The results showed that 6-Shogaol antioxidant effect was significant, with the highest activity of antioxidant enzyme SOD and GSH-PX, and lowest production of ROS AND MDA in 20 μmol /L treatment group (P<0.05), The mechanism of action might be due to the activation of Keap1-Nrf2/HO-1-antioxidant enzyme signaling pathway by inhibiting the keap1 expression (P<0.05). High concentrations of 6-Shogaol inhibited the proliferation of liver cells (P<0.05). 6-Shogaol increased the expression of inflammatory cytokine genes in NF-κB inflammatory pathway (tnf-α, il-1β, il-6) in zebrafish liver cells (P<0.05). While in contrast to the control group, 6-Shogaol down-regulated the anti-inflammatory cytokine il-10 expression. The above results showed that 6-Shogaol in the concentration of 20 μmol /L can promote the antioxidant function and the supplementation of 6-Shogaol can activate innate immune response in zebrafish liver cell.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    To explore the yield-increasing effect and physiological mechanism of boron(B)-nitrogen (N) interaction in Brassica napus, which can optimize fertilization strategy and provide the theoretical and technical basis for promoting green and efficient production of rapeseed. The effects of synergistic effects of B and N on rapeseed growth, N uptake and utilization, N metabolism enzyme activity, and seed yield were analyzed by hydroponic experiment and field experiment. The results showed that B deficiency significantly inhibited the root growth of rapeseed at the seedling stage under different N supply levels. Compared with low N or low B treatment, the balanced supply of B and N significantly increased the N uptake and the expression level of related genes, and improved the activities of nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) in N metabolism. In the field experiment, the application of B and N fertilizer significantly increased the seed yield of rapeseed. However, the effect of B fertilizer application was closely related to soil N availability. Under the normal N (180 kg/hm2) supply level, the effect of B fertilizer application was better than that of low N (60 kg/hm2) condition, while high B (18 kg/hm2) combined with high N (240 kg/hm2) limited the further increase of seed yield. Appropriate co-application of B and N significantly improved the N harvest index and promoted the distribution of N to the grains. B and N co-application had significant interaction effects on the growth and development of rapeseed, both in the hydroponic seedling stage and the whole growth stage of field. Under the field conditions of this study, the recommended amount of N fertilizer was 180-240 kg/hm2, and the combined application with 4.5-9 kg/hm2 of borax could maximize the yield increasing potential of rapeseed.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    When researching and designing mountain forest, fruit, and tea garden intelligent machinery and equipment, to improve the accuracy of input excitation, the method of combining three-dimensional lidar measurement and point cloud processing algorithm was used to conduct road roughness collection research.The acquisition system is mainly composed of VLP-16 three-dimensional lidar, which is mounted on a crawler transport vehicle. After the collection system collects point cloud data on a typical orchard road surface, it performs processing such as denoising, registration, and segmentation, extracts road elevation information, calculates power spectrum density, and finally obtains the road surface roughness level. The acceleration vibration recorder is used to obtain vehicle vibration information and calculate the power spectrum density to obtain the unevenness level of the same road surface, thus verifying the acquisition system, the results show that it is feasible to collect and evaluate the unevenness of the orchard road surface based on the three-dimensional lidar acquisition system and data processing method.The final result of the unevenness of the orchard road surface is that the cement pavement is mainly concentrated in the B grade, and the B grade accounts for 82.33%; the sand and gravel pavement is mainly concentrated in the C grade, and the C grade accounts for 84%; the mud pavement is mainly concentrated in the D, E grade, and D grade. The road surface accounted for 48.67%, and the E-grade accounted for 31%.The roughness evaluation results show that the application of the three-dimensional lidar orchard road roughness acquisition system is reliable and the evaluation results are accurate. It is suitable for collecting road roughness in mountain forests, fruit, and tea gardens.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    This study was aimed to identify the molecular makers related to the disease-resistance traits after the PRRSV infection. A total of 159 healthy piglets from Large White × Tongcheng advanced generation intercross population were experimentally infected with PRRSV and genotyped with the “Zhongxin No.1” SNP chip. The lymphocyte percentages at different days post-infection (dpi) were measured as disease resistance indicator traits. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of DDX17 rs81257542, BTG1 rs334594334 and rs329240026 were significantly associated with lymphocyte percentages(P <0.05). Allele C in rs81257542, allele A in rs334594334, and the combined genotype CC-AA were significantly associated with the higher lymphocyte percentage in response to PRRSV infection. The SNPs of rs81257542 and rs334594334 have significant effects on serum viral load at 7 dpi. To achieve the rapid screening of the resistant genotype individuals, we have developed the one-step Tetra-primer ARMS-PCR method to rapidly genotype rs81257542 and rs334594334. In conclusion, the SNPs of rs81257542 and rs334594334 are the potential molecular markers for the lymphocyte percentage in blood relating to PRRS resistance traits.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    To investigate mechanisms of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BLCC1-0238 (B. amyloliquefaciens BLCC1-0238) in alleviatig non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a mouse model of NAFLD induced by a high-fat diet was established, and then low- or high-dose (106 or 108 CFU) B. amyloliquefaciens BLCC1-0238 was used to intervene. The protective effects of B. amyloliquefaciens BLCC1-0238 on NAFLD were evaluated by examining physiochemical indexes in serum and liver histopathological changes. The effect of B. amyloliquefaciens BLCC1-0238 on intestinal microflora and hepatic lipid metabolism of mice with NAFLD was analyzed by genomics and transcriptomics, respectively. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was applied to verify the results of transcriptomics. The results of physiochemical indexes in serum showed that B. amyloliquefaciens BLCC1-0238 significantly reduced the levels of TC, TG, ALT, and ALT; liver histopathological changes demonstrated that hepatocyte steatosis of mice with NAFLD were obviously alleviated. The results of genomic analysis showed that B. amyloliquefaciens BLCC1-0238 altered the composition of intestinal microflora, and significantly increased the relative abundance of Bifidobacteria producing short chain fatty acids at the level of genus. The results of liver transcriptomic analysis showed that B. amyloliquefaciens BLCC1-0238 was mainly involved in negative regulation of lipid metabolism pathways, such as fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. Additionally, qRT-PCR confirmed the results of transcriptomics. Collectively, B. amyloliquefaciens BLCC1-0238 can alleviate NAFLD by changing the composition of intestinal microflora and regulating hepatic lipid metabolism.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    A field experiment with four phosphorus (P) fertilization practices (CK, no P fertilizer; LAPP, localized fertilization of ammonium polyphosphate; BSSP, broadcasted fertilization of calcium superphosphate; LSSP, localized fertilization of calcium superphosphate) was carried out to study the effects of different optimized practices on the growth of spring maize and soil properties under no mulch (NM) and plastic film mulch (FM) cultivations and tried to provide the optimized management of P fertilization that can improve P use efficiency. The results showed that in the early growth stage of spring maize, soil water content and water storage under FM cultivation were increased by 24.7% and soil temperature was increased by 10.2%-12.7% compared with those under NM cultivation. The aboveground biomass of maize under FM was 1.4 times and 2.5 times higher than that under NM at 30- and 50-day, respectively after sowing. Similarly, the root biomass of maize under FM was 1.1 to 1.4 times higher than that under NM. The accumulation of phosphorus in the maize shoot under FM was 1.9~6.0 times higher than that under NM. The alkaline phosphatase activity in the LAPP treatment was 28.7%-30.8% lower but 7.4%-20.4% higher than that in the BSSP treatment under FM condition and 14.8%-45.9% higher than that in the BSSP treatment under NM. Soil available P content in the LAPP treatment was 6.4%~84.2% higher than that in other treatments. In addition, at 50-day after sowing, the total root length, root surface area and length of fine root (<0.5 mm) in the LAPP treatment were all higher than that in other treatments, with the increase of 15.4%-22.5%, 3.1-40.8% and 10.3%-102.2%, respectively. Therefore, film mulching is still the main way to keep water and heat and promote the growth of spring maize in the rainfed areas of northwest China, and localized application of ammonium polyphosphate is beneficial to the growth of maize and the use efficiency of phosphorus fertilizer.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    Nitrogen is the basis for the formation of rice yield and quality, and is also the most needed element during the growth process of rice. The large use of nitrogen fertilizer can guarantee rice yield and maintain national food security, but also cause problems such as low utilization rate of resources, rice quality decline and environmental pollution. In this paper, the physiological basis of carbon and nitrogen in rice yield and quality and the response mechanism of nitrogen fertilizer were reviewed, and the methods of quantitative fertilization and formula fertilization were used to improve the nitrogen use efficiency of rice and reduce the environmental pollution on the basis of high yield and good quality, in order to provide reference for the theory of high yield and good quality cultivation of rice.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    The rapid development of urbanization leads to the transformation of land use form and function, especially in mountainous areas. At the same time, the change of landscape pattern is a prominent symbol of land use transformation, and it is of great significance to explore the relationship between them for land use and ecological management in mountainous areas. Taking Jinzhai County in Dabie Mountains as the research object, this paper selects three remote sensing satellite image data in 1999, 2009 and 2019, and makes a quantitative analysis on the landscape pattern evolution characteristics of Jinzhai County by using land use transfer matrix and landscape pattern index, and studies the driving force of landscape pattern evolution of Jinzhai County by using principal component analysis. The results show that: 1) From 1999 to 2019, the transformation of land use in Jinzhai County was characterized by the transformation from production land to living land and ecological land, with the highest transformation rate of construction land and continuous growth, the area of cultivated land and unused land decreased, and the forest land and water area continued to grow steadily; In terms of type, it is mainly the conversion between cultivated land, construction land, unused land and forest land; In space, the land use transformation in Jinzhai County was mainly concentrated in the central region from 1999 to 2009, and mainly concentrated in the northeast region from 2009 to 2019; 2) During the period, the fragmentation of landscape pattern in Jinzhai County increased, landscape heterogeneity and evenness decreased, and irregular patches increased. From 2009 to 2019, various landscape types were distributed intermittently, and landscape connectivity decreased; 3) The comprehensive action of five driving forces of Jinzhai County, including economic development, industrial level, population situation, living standard and governance environment, led to the transformation of land use and the change of landscape pattern.Among them, socio-economic development is the main driving factor of landscape pattern change in Jinzhai County, while population and urban construction are the secondary driving factors. In future researches, should consider further optimizing the measurement method of landscape pattern evolution and deepening the research on driving factors, and propose scientific and comprehensive land use and landscape pattern optimization strategies.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    Nocardia seriolae is a pathogen that seriously harms Micropterus salmoides. In order to understand the drug resistance and the prevalence of drug resistance genes in N. seriolae, the main breeding area for Micropterus salmoides in Sichuan, 20 strains of N. seriolae were isolated and identified from Sichuan from 2018 to 2019 in the study. The micro broth dilution method was used to determine the drug-resistant phenotype of the isolated strains. It was found that the sensitivity rates to doxycycline, tilmicosin, gentamicin, etc. were 100%, the drug resistance rates to penicillin, ceftiofur, cefoxitin, etc. were 100%, and the resistance rates to enrofloxacin and florfenicol were 45% and 20%, respectively, among them, 10 strains showed multi-drug resistance, and the drug-resistant phenotypes of the isolates are different. This result provides a reference for the effective medication of Sichuan N. seriolae. The ultra-high-throughput fluorescence quantitative PCR method detected the distribution of 78 types of drug resistance genes in 6 types of isolates. The results showed that all 6 types of resistant genes could be detected in 20 isolates. including, and. The detection rate of tetA, tetG, tetS, aacC, acrA, acrB, floR and blaTEM reached 100%, and the detection rate of other resistance genes ranged from 5% to 95%. There were strain differences in drug resistance genes detection, indicating that the Sichuan N. seriolae has further evolved into a multi-drug resistant bacteria potential risks.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    Water-saving and drought-resistant rice (WDR) is a new type of rice varieties combining strong water-saving capacity and drought resistance with high yield potential and quality. The development of WDR not only breaks through the limitation of water resources to expand plantation range and area of rice and thus helps to ensure food security, but also significantly reduces the labor intensity and the negative impact on environment of rice production by reforming plantation methods. In this paper, the current situation, development prospect and main problems to be resolved in WDR production were discussed based on the previous studies and our investigations. Moreover, the future research work needed to be strengthened was proposed. The main purpose of this paper is to provide a guideline for the future study and development of WDR.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    An experiment was conducted using two conventional rice cultivars with good taste quality, indica rice Yangxizao and japonica rice Exiang 2, with spraying and non-spraying wood vinegar, including four nitrogen application levels (0,50,100,200) kghm-2, to explore the influence of wood vinegar and different nitrogen application on the yield and eating quality of rice. Comparing with non-application of wood vinegar, the wood vinegar application significantly increased yield under different nitrogen application conditions. Spraying wood vinegar had a higher impact on yield increase of conventional japonica rice Exiang 2, especially under low nitrogen level. With the wood vinegar application under different nitrogen application, the processing quality of rice was significantly improved, the rate of brown rice and milled rice was obviously increased. Spraying wood vinegar under different nitrogen application was also conducive to the improvement of cooking and eating quality, increased significantly breakdown, reduced setback and then improved the taste value. The improvement of rice yield and taste quality were more significant when the wood vinegar applied under low nitrogen level. This study provided theoretical and technical support for the application of wood vinegar combined with nitrogen fertilizer in the production of high-quality rice.
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    2015,34(4):108-113, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1885) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.06 M] (9864)
    Abstract:
    In this study,we investigated the effect of bio-floating bed on growth and muscle quality of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and blunt snout bream(Megalobrama amblycephala) in ponds.Two modes of culture ponds were chosen:one equipped with bio-floating bed was the experimental pond,and the other without beds was the control pond.At the end of the experiment,we measured the growth parameters,the muscle conventional nutrients,water holding capacity (WHC),and texture characteristics using biochemical and physical methods.The results showed that the final weight of fish cultured in the experimental pond was higher than that in the control pond.The hepatic somatic index of grass carp (1.77%) in the experimental pond was significantly lower than that of the control (2.47%).The condition factors of grass carp and blunt snout bream (1.73 and 2.56,respectively) were significantly higher than those of the control (1.64 and 2.40,respectively).There was no significant difference in the eviscerated weight of both carp and bream between the experimental (91.06 and 88.28,respectively) and the control (89.22 and 88.49,respectively) ponds.The drop loss (14.49% and 10.69,respectively) and water loss rate (17.52% and 10.34%,respectively) of the experimental grass carp and blunt snout bream were significantly lower than those of the control.The cooked rate of the experimental fish was significantly higher than the control.The muscle crude fat content (1.89%) and crude protein content (14.60%) of grass carp in the experimental ponds were significantly higher than those of the control (1.54% and 13.46%),whereas muscle water content (81.68%) of the experimental fish was significantly lower than that (82.65%) of the control.There is no significant difference in muscle ash content between the two groups.Unlike grass carp,only muscle crude protein content (17.23%) of the experimental bream was significantly higher than that (15.90%) of the control.The muscular hardness,gumminess,and chewiness of the experimental carp (5 298.10 g,2 450.78 g and 770.78 g,respectively) were significantly higher than those of the control (3 226.79 g,1 881.43 g and 602.80 g,respectively).The resilience (0.31) and cohesion (0.48) of experimental carp were significantly lower than those (0.43 and 0.58,respectively) of the control.However,only the muscular springiness of the blunt snout bream in the experimental pond was significantly higher than that in the control pond.
    2015,34(4):120-124, DOI:
    [Abstract] (2182) [HTML] (0) [PDF 976.50 K] (8268)
    Abstract:
    Effects of soaking temperature,cultivation temperature and watering frequency on the growth characteristics and nutrition of mung bean sprout were investigated. Growth characteristics and nutrition of mung bean sprout were significantly affected by soaking temperature,cultivation temperature and watering frequency (P<0.05). When the bean was soaked at higher temperature (40℃),body weight of the cultivated mung bean sprout was heavier,hypocotyl was longer,contents of free amino acid (FAA),water soluble sugar (WSS) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were higher. The hypocotyl was longer while the diameter was smaller when the bean was cultivated in the relatively higher temperature (30-35℃). When the watering frequency decreased,weight,hypocotyl length and diameter decreased,WSS content decreased first and then increased,FAA content increased first and then decreased,GABA content was fluctuated. The optimal germination conditions of mung bean sprout were soaking bean at 40℃ for 5 h,with cultivation temperature of 25-30℃ and watering once per hour.
    2013,32(4):48-54, DOI: 1000-2421(2013)04-0048-07
    [Abstract] (2008) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.58 M] (6856)
    Abstract:
    The spatial distribution of Valley County land use degree in 2009 was studied and the spatial autocorrelation of land use degree and its driving factors in different scales were analyzed.A spatial autoregressive model and geographically weighted regression model was established from the perspective of global local.The results showed that there was a certain spatial autocorrelation in land use degree and its driving factors with scale effect.Spatial regression model could estimate the overall parameter of various factors while geographically weighted regression model could give the local parameter of various factors.Scales of geographical weighted regression model could reflect the detailed geographical information to some extent.
    2015,34(3):8-12, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1426) [HTML] (0) [PDF 3.41 M] (5764)
    Abstract:
    pCB302-3 is a plant mini-binary stable transformation vector.To investigate the transient expression of pCB302-3 vector in plant,GFP was inserted into pCB302-3 vector as a reporter gene,and various factors including density of Agrobacterium cell,supplementation of gene silencing suppression p19 and days post infiltration were optimized based on agroinfiltration method in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves.Results showed that high levels of GFP expression were observed in N.benthamiana leaves 3-5 d after infiltration by Agrobacterium cell suspension contained pCB302-3-GFP with an optical density (D600) of 0.8-1.0 co-infiltrated with p19 gene.
    2012,31(1):16-22, DOI: 1000-2421(2012)01-0016-07
    [Abstract] (2483) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.07 M] (5333)
    Abstract:
    Nitrogen is one of essential nutrients for plant growth.Under the N deficiency at different time points,the dynamic changes of the expression of genes and activity of enzymes related to nitrogen assimilation in rice were investigated.The results showed that the concentrations of ammonium and nitrate significantly reduced under the N deficiency.Under the N deficiency for a short time,the expression level of genes including NR1, NR2, NiR2,GS2,Fd-GOGAT,GDH2,GDH3 in the shoots as well as NR1,NR2,GDH4 in the roots were up-regulated,and then their expression level decreased after a long time under the N deficiency.Along with the extension of time under the N deficiency,the GS,Fd-GOGAT activities in whole plants,NR activity in shoots and NADH-GOGAT activity in roots decreased while the NADPH-GDH activity in shoots increased.In roots the activities of NR,GDH increased at first and then decreased,while in shoots the NiR activity was just the opposite.Re-supplied N after 7 days of N deficiency,the transcriptional expression level and enzyme activities of NR,NiR,GS,GOGAT,GDH restored,and expression level of some genes increased as well.
    2015,34(1):128-135, DOI:
    [Abstract] (2314) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.21 M] (5323)
    Abstract:
    In order to overcome the transition,field operation, and standardized batch production difficulties of the existing track cargo vehicle in mountainous orchard, as well as to raise the utilization rate, the mountain orchard detachable unidirectional traction double track cargo vehicle was developed. This paper introduced the whole machine structure, the wire rope diameter selection,the minimum track inclination,the maximum track distance,the minimum track turning radius and the working principle of the rope brake device. Load experiments were carried out to test the cargo′s synthetic track function. It is indicated by calculation that the wire rope diameter should be 7.7 mm,the minimum track inclination was 5.7°, the maximum track distance was 170 m, the minimum track horizontal turning radius was 7 m, and the minimum track vertical turning radius was 2 m. Load experiment results indicated that the cargo vehicle′s uplink average speed was 0.51 m/s, the downlink average speed was 0.54 m/s, the average energy consumption was 1.235 kW·h and the effective use degree was 100%. This cargo vehicle was suitable for fruit, pesticide, chemical fertilizer and other cargo transportation in the mountain orchard. Meanwhile, it can be applied to carry the spraying machine, the shave machine and other agricultural machines.
    2013,32(5):124-133, DOI: 1000-2421(2013)05-0124-10
    [Abstract] (1537) [HTML] (0) [PDF 4.01 M] (5102)
    Abstract:
    Bacterial canker is a devastating disease of kiwifruit. In recent years,the disease is showing a tendency to outbreak in such countries as Italy and New Zealand,where kiwifruit is a major crop,and has the trends to further spread worldwide,which will be a serious threat to the development of the kiwifruit industry. Based on the latest research reports, this paper summarized the symptoms,pathogen identification,rapid detection methods,virulence differences,infected mechanism,epidemiology and control technology of the disease. Meanwhile,the future research prospect of kiwifruit bacterial canker was also discussed in order to reduce the loss and risk of the kiwifruit industry.
    2014,33(2):139-144, DOI: 1000-2421(2014)02-0139-06
    [Abstract] (1395) [HTML] (0) [PDF 968.56 K] (4684)
    Abstract:
    Algae are lower photosynthetic autotrophs which have close relationship with agricultural activities.With the deep understanding of physiological and ecological characteristics,algae have used more and more widelyin the practice of agricultural activities.This paper reviews the application of algaeas a resourcein agricultural activities including improvement of agricultural environment,utilized as food or food additives and health care products,as well as feed or bait.
    2012,31(1):127-132, DOI: 1000-2421(2012)01-0127-06
    [Abstract] (1656) [HTML] (0) [PDF 930.13 K] (4667)
    Abstract:
    Post-harvest strawberries are susceptible to the decay of fruit and deterioration of quality due to pathogenic fungi infections,a main factor leading to economic losses for both growers and retailers.With the increase of strawberries planting in China,it is urgent to effectively reduce post-harvest rots of strawberry fruits.In this review,new management developments for controlling fungal diseases in post-harvest strawberry were summarized in terms of physical,chemical and biological approaches,which can help to extend the on-shelf time of strawberry fruits.
    2012,31(5):569-573, DOI: 1000-2421(2012)05-0569-05
    [Abstract] (1349) [HTML] (0) [PDF 912.59 K] (4655)
    Abstract:
    Hydroponic experiments of strawberry were conducted with three formulations of nutrient solution to select the best formulations for soilless cultivation of strawberry.Several main characteristics of growth including the fresh weight and dry weight of overground plant and root,the growth of crown,the photosynthetic and quality of strawberry,the diameter of staminate flower,the growth amass were investigated.The results showed that the effect of nutrient solution with the content of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate,potassium nitrate,ammonium dihydrogen phosphate,magnesium sulfate and ammonium nitrate at 295,303,62,246,0 mg/L on the growing status and fruit quality of strawberry are better than that of the other 2 treatments.This nutrient solution formula was the most propitious for the growth of ‘Jingyao’ strawberry and the enhancement of the fruit quality among the three different treatnments.That is,it facilitated the growth of strawberry in alimentation growth periods,and the leaves of ‘Jingyao’ strawberry was larger and thicker with a dark-green color,and the diameter of the pedicel was also larger. In addition,the nutrient solution formula was also conducive to the flowering promotion and the reproductive growth of strawberry,and resultes showed that the single fruit weight,yield and fruit quality is the best comparing to the other treatments.The results of this study provided academic and technological basis for establishing high yield and quality of strawberry in greenhouse substrate culture of irrigation and nitrogen application system. 
    2016,35(1):81-85, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1099) [HTML] (0) [PDF 943.32 K] (4491)
    Abstract:
    Using Mesorhizobium sp.S-15 and Paenibacillus sp.S-17 as experimental strains.After cell disruption,NH4OAc extraction,H2O2 solution digestion or without any pre-treatment,K+ content in the fermentation broth of potassium solubilizing bacteria was determined with flame photometer.The efficiency of K solubilizing by potassium solubilizing bacteria in the culture medium was calculated.The results showed that the standard curves of the three kinds of K series of standard solutions were similar with the R2 values of 0.994 4,0.999 7 and 0.999 8,respectively.After digested by H2O2 solution,concentration of K+ was detected.The efficiency of two strains was 101.1% and 125.1%,significantly higher than that of other groups.The efficiency of potassium solubilizing detected after H2O2 digestion well reflected potassium solubilization of bacteria.
    2014,33(06), DOI:
    [Abstract] (910) [HTML] (0) [PDF 8.30 M] (4312)
    Abstract:
    The development of Golden Rice to date has taken longer than anticipated.It has been proven to have the potential to assist in the alleviation of an important public health problem,vitamin A deficiency,affecting millions.Complying with the highly precautionary,and now proven unnecessary,UN Cartagena Protocol for Biosafety has impeded scientific progress and scientific collaboration,particularly by delaying the selection of phenotypes grown in the open field.So far therefore,Golden Rice has not been able to assist in combatting vitamin A deficiency,identified by the UN as an important public health target for 25 years,and which continues to cause preventable deaths and blindness.However,the inventor’s original vision of the donation of the technology to assist the resource poor who want to benefit from it remains firm and achievable,subject to continuing philanthropic and public sector funding.
    2014,33(01):12-17, DOI: 1000-2421(2014)01-0012-06
    [Abstract] (1615) [HTML] (0) [PDF 944.55 K] (4306)
    Abstract:
    Seventeen pairs of SSR primers with clear polymorphic bands were screened from 60 pairs of SSR locus covering 17 linkage groups of pear genetic map and amplified with 20 pear cultivars.136 polymorphic bands in total were obtained with 5~11 bands per primer locus (8.0 bands on average).The polymorphism information content (PIC) of the 17 SSR loci ranged from 0.614 to 0.848 with an average of 0.733.All pear cultivars studied could be identified with 38 different combinations of 2 markers each.Bands amplified by each marker were coded based on size of fragment and used as a molecular ID.
    2014,33(2):15-21, DOI: 1000-2421(2014)02-0015-07
    [Abstract] (1841) [HTML] (0) [PDF 980.62 K] (4306)
    Abstract:
    Teosinte is the ancestor of maize,and plays an important role in maize domestication process and gene cloning.Solexa RNA-Seq was used to de novo assembly and analyze the transcriptome of teosintes.40.6 GB raw data were produced,including 175 101 250 reads of 76 bp length.After quality control and de novo assembly,58 147 teosinte transcripts with an average length of 1 335 bp were obtained.After bioinformatically comparing,it was found that 94.3% of teosinte transcripts had good matching with B73 cDNAs,and that 84.1% of the transcript had good matching with rice,84.6% with sorghum and 83.9% with brachypodium at protein level.This research will provide a reference for subsequent studies on maize evolution and gene discovery.
    2015,34(3):134-141, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1319) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.42 M] (4303)
    Abstract:
    Soil salinity is a major environmental constraint to agricultural productivity.It is a complex network for plant adaptation to salt stress,and it is still a great challenge to improve crop salt tolerance.Mechanisms of SOS signal transduction pathway on Na+ exclusion and compartmentation,the regulation of microRNA and transcription factors involved in salt stress were reviewed.It will provide a fundamental understanding and knowledge for studying salt resistance and breeding salt tolerance in plants.
    2011,30(5):613-617, DOI: 1000-2421(2011)05-0613-05
    [Abstract] (1390) [HTML] (0) [PDF 914.54 K] (4239)
    Abstract:
    Pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of spraying different micronutrients and amino acids into the surface of leaves on yield and quality of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.).The results showed that methionine,zinc,molybdenum,boron and glycine could increase yield of Chinese cabbage.The treatments of spraying methionine,zinc and molybdenum increased yield of Chinese cabbage significantly.All treatments could reduce the nitrate content of Chinese cabbage with the highest decrease of 35.0% compared with the control.Molybdenum,boron,zinc and methionine might reduce nitrate content of Chinese cabbage significantly.Experiment also indicated that glycine,proline and selenium could both increase the contents of vitamin C,soluble sugar and soluble protein of Chinese cabbage.Therefore,spraying micronutrient or amino acids into the surface of leaves is a good application for increasing yield,reducing nitrate content and improving quality of Chinese cabbage.
    2011,30(4):488-493, DOI: 1000-2421(2011)04-0488-06
    [Abstract] (1358) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.81 M] (4197)
    Abstract:
    The morphological variations and discriminant methods of Channa argus (♂),C.maculata (♀) and their hybrid were studied using traditional morphometrics and the truss network analysis.Body color of C.argus,C.maculata and their hybrid were observed.The results showed significant differences between C.argus and C.maculata from stripe at top of head,side and base of caudal fin,and the hybrid resembled C.maculata from body color.Among eleven meristic characters,the numbers of soft ray of pelvic fin were consistent in these three species,and the numbers of soft ray of pectoral fin deviated from its male parent’s species.The other meristic characters were within the range of its parent’s,the average hybrid index was calculated to be 53.45.The chi-square analysis of meristic characters showed that:there were significant differences(P<0.05) or greater significant differences(P<0.01) between C.argus and C.maculata except the number of pectoral fin rays; greater significant differences(P<0.01) between C.argus and the hybrid except the number of tail fin rays,gill rakers,lateral line scales and scales below lateral line; and significant differences(P<0.05) or greater significant differences(P<0.01) between C.maculata and the hybrid except the number of tail fin rays and gill rakers.Among meristic characters,the number of dorsal fin rays,lateral line scales and scales above lateral line can be used as preliminary indicators to determine the three species.Among ten measurable characters,the average hybrid index was calculated to be 73.90,indicating the measurable character inclined to its male parent’s species (C.argus).Cluster analysis,discriminant analysis and principal component analysis were applied to the measurable character data and the truss network data.The results indicated that the hybrid resembled C.argus from body shape,and there were greater morphological differences among C.argus,C.maculata and their hybrid.Differences between them involved the entire body.Three species could be distinguished by using the 3 formulae established with discriminant analysis which the discrimination accuracy was 100.0%.
    2014,33(2):96-102, DOI: 1000-2421(2014)02-0096-07
    Abstract:
    A 90-day study was conducted to investigate effects of dietary lipid levels on performance,fat deposition,activity and expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in GIFT tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juvenile,and to explore the correlation between LPL gene expression and fat deposition.315 GIFT tilapia juveniles(average weight 2.63±0.16 g) were randomly divided into three groups with three replications,and fed with isonitrogenous diets with different lipid levels of 3.7% (low-lipid group),7.7%(middle-lipid group)and 16.6% (high-lipid group) by supplementing with 2%,6% and 15% fish oil as lipid source,respectively.The results showed:(1) the hepatosomatic index (HSI),viscerosomatic index (VSI) and lipid contents in liver and muscle increased with increasing dietary lipid level(P<0.05),but there was a trends for condition factor (CF) with first increased then decreased (P>0.05); (2)with increasing dietary lipid levels, the weight gain (WG) first increased, then decreased, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) decreased(P<0.05); (3)LPL gene was expressed in liver and muscle of GIFT tilapia,while the expression level in liver was significantly higher than that in muscle (P<0.05); (4) during the 48 h post-refeeding period,liver LPL activity in high-lipid group was significantly higher than that in low-lipid and middle-lipid group at 6 h,but significantly lower than that in low-lipid group at the 12 h,24 h and 48 h.There was a trend in low-lipid and middle-lipid group that liver LPL activity increased first and then decreased; (5) the expression of LPL was significantly higher in high-lipid group than that in low-lipid group (P<0.05); (6) there were a significant linear positive correlation between HSI,lipid contents in liver and muscle,and liver LPL expression in GIFT tilapia juvenile.The results indicated that LPL expression in GIFT tilapia was in a tissue specific pattern and liver was the main organ for secretion and expression of LPL; high dietary lipid level could inhibit growth of GIFT tilapia juvenile,decrease feed conversion ratio,induce the expression of LPL in liver,and promote fat deposition in liver and muscle; liver LPL expression was involved in fat deposition of GIFT tilapia juvenile.
    2010,29(3):363-368, DOI: 1000-2421(2010)03-0363-06
    [Abstract] (2636) [HTML] (0) [PDF 11.41 M] (4122)
    Abstract:
    The index of heat injury and leaf anatomical structure under the scanning electron microscope of six Primula species were measured to study the responsive mechanism of Primula to the high temperature and to select the heat resistant Primula species.The results showed that Primula forrestii and P.malacoides franch had higher heat-resistance than that of P.obconica,P.veris,P.saxatilis,P.denticulatess.,P.sinodenticulata with lowest heat-resistance.Leaf anatomical structures of Primula associated with heat-resistance included leaf thickness,tightness of mesophyll cell arrangement,the number of open stomata,the number of epidermal hair and powders of leaves.
    2010,29(6):798-804, DOI: 1000-2421(2010)06-0798-07
    [Abstract] (1181) [HTML] (0) [PDF 996.73 K] (3972)
    Abstract:
    The cracking of fruit skin and the splitting of underlying flesh is a kind of fruit physiological disorder,which downgrades the fruit appearance quality and causes the infection of disease,thereby reducing the commercial value and resulting in serious economic loss.Herein recent studies on fruit cracking were reviewed,mainly focusing on the influence of phenotypic characteristics,genetic factor,physiological characters,mineral nutrients,environmental conditions,plant growth regulators and cultivation practices.The prospect of research was discussed.

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