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    2021,40(4):1-7 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.001
    [Abstract] (105) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.07 M] (100)
    Abstract:
    The potato has been cultivated and domesticated in South America for tens of thousands of years,but its spread between continents has only occurred in recent centuries as navigation is the only possible way.However,when and how the potato was introduced to China is still uncertain.According to the historical data of navigation and the earliest discovery of unique species between continents,it is possible that the introduction of potato to China may be in the 21st year of Yong Le of Ming Dynasty (1423) when ZHENG He returned from his sixth voyage.Results of analyzing the local chronicles showed that the potato was first planted mainly in the Peking in the first 200 years,and gradually became a royal delicacy.During the Qing Dynasty,it was widely spread in Wumeng,Wuling and Qinba mountainous regions adjacent to each other,where was the earliest concentrated potato producing area in China.
    2021,40(4):8-15 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.002
    Abstract:
    Potatoes were scattered only in isolated mountainous areas in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties. Its adaptation to the cold and barren land made potatoes a food for the civilians to relieve the famine in the southwestern China and its adjacent areas in the middle and late Qing Dynasty,which also provided a large number of immigrants with food security for the Qing government to implement and consolidate the national governance system of “replacement of chieftains with centrally-appointed non-hereditary officials” in the southwestern China. Its high-yield characteristics make the development of potatoes an important measure to ensure the supplies for the civilian and army during the Anti-Japanese War. Since 1950,the area,production and output value of the potato have continued to increase as the national economic development plans implemented. Its contribution to the total output value of staple crops is averagely above two times of its cultivation proportion. The potato industry will further take its unique biological advantages and highlight its important strategic position in ensuring national food security,agricultural efficiency and meeting demand-side food diversification and health needs.
    2021,40(4):16-26 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.003
    Abstract:
    Science and technology is the support of industrial development,and solving the problems faced by industrial development has always been the purpose of scientific research on potato. Only after the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty monarchy,China began systematic scientific researches on potato. So far it has only a history of more than a hundred years. Magnificently,each stage has its outstanding goals and remarkable achievements. The variety screening and hybrid breeding started in the 1930s laid the foundation for the first variety renewal in the 1950s,with a significant increase of yield. Continuous support by the national potato science and technology projects during the "Sixth Five-Year Plan" to "Ninth Five-Year Plan" in China encouraged a systematic research on breeding,cultivation zoning,germplasm evaluation and seed potato propagation which accelerated a rapid development of the industry,so that China has become the largest potato producer in the world. The application and applied basic research since the new century has provided a strong support for improving quality and efficiency of potato industry. In particular,the studies on genetic regulation of potato traits,which is at the forefront of the disciplines,have enhanced the potential of technological innovation and competition in science and technology,and will further promote the strategic position of the potato in ensuring national food security and meeting the needs of healthy life. 
    2021,40(4):27-35 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.004
    Abstract:
    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the world’s largest non-cereal food crop and plays an important role in the global economy and food security. Tubers are economic organs and reproductive organs of potato. They store a large amount of starch,and their development process is regulated by sugar signals. Sugar signal regulates potato tuber morphogenesis and sink-source relationship. This article summarizes the progress on plant sugar signal pathway,sugar signal regulating potato tuber morphogenesis,source-sink relation and its cross-talk with photoperiod,plant hormones and other signal pathways. On this basis,the model of sugar signal regulating potato tuber development was proposed to provide a reference for further elucidating the mechanism of sugar signal regulating potato tuber development.
    2021,40(4):36-43 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.005
    Abstract:
    Zinc is an essential microelement for plants and human body. For a long time,zinc deficiency has been a global public health problem and one of the important factors leading to human disease and death. At present,more than 2 billion people worldwide are facing the health problems caused by zinc deficiency. The population of zinc deficiency in developing countries is particularly serious,and there are as many as 100 million zinc-deficient populations in China. 76% zinc in human body comes from plant food,and low content of zinc in crops is an important cause of zinc deficiency in human body and various symptoms of zinc deficiency or diseases. Therefore,eating natural zinc-rich plant foods is considered to be the basic way to solve the problem of zinc deficiency in human body. Potato is the fourth largest food crop in the world following rice,wheat and corn. It has high yield and rich nutrition. It is cultivated worldwide and is one of the important food sources for human beings,it also has great potential in zinc biofortification. In 2015,China began to implement a potato staple food strategy,aiming to ensure the national food security and adjust the dietary structure of the residents to promote human health. In this context,it is of great significance to study nutritional characteristics of zinc and zinc biofortification in potato to achieve zinc-rich potatoes,and then to improve human zinc nutrition and health through dietary supplements. The nutritive function of zinc in potato,the status of soil zinc in potato production areas,breeding and agronomic fortification was summarized and prospected in this article. It is proposed that zinc plays an important role in growth,yield and quality formation of potato. Agronomic fortification is currently the main technical measure for fortifying zinc nutrition in potato. Breeding fortification requires further discovery and utilization of elite germplasm resources to lay a good germplasm foundation for producing zinc-rich potatoes.
    2021,40(4):44-53 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.006
    Abstract:
    Acrylamide exists in starch-rich foods processed with high-temperature and is carcinogenic. There are many ways to produce acrylamide,and the Maillard reaction is the most important way to produce acrylamide. The multiple ways to produce acrylamide bring great troubles to the control of acrylamide in the product as well. Potato tubers are rich in substrates of Maillard reaction including asparagine and reducing sugars,which are the easiest food to form acrylamide. Reducing the content of acrylamide has always the major problem faced by the industry of processing potato. In order to guide the safe production of processing potato scientifically,especially snack foods,the acrylamide formation pathways,control paths and methods of acrylamide in processing potato were sorted out systematically,and the effects of different control conditions on the acrylamide formation were evaluated based on the statistical methods of literature. The results showed that controlling the substrate concentration,blanching,using CaCl2,NaCl,Cys,and controlling the cooking conditions can effectively control the acrylamide content of potato products.
    2021,40(4):54-62 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.007
    Abstract:
    In recent years,the potato virus-free technology is becoming more and more matured in China. The output of virus-free seed potato is increasing year by year,but the production cost is also rising sharply,which seriously limits the promotion and application of virus-free seed potato. In this article,the agronomic processes of virus-free seed potato including the basic agronomic process of shoot tip detoxification,test tube culture,expanding propagation,medium culture,field propagation were summarized. Analyzed the mechanization production technology needed in each production process including the machine vision system,the technology of grasping and cutting tissue culture seedlings needed in the process of tissue culture,condition control system of growth in greenhouse,intelligent environment monitoring system needed in medium culture process,virus-free seed potato seeding technology needed in the virus-free seed potato seeding process was analyzed. The situation of equipment for virus-free seed potato production mechanization including the mechanical equipment needed in the process of expanding propagation,medium culture,virus-free seed potato seeding at home and abroad was summarized. Advices on strengthening the research of integrating agricultural machinery with agronomic technology,accelerating the study of mechanism of basic common technology,striving for the support of policies and funds,and accelerating the development of seed potato industry and mechanization in China are proposed to promote the automation and intelligence of the virus-free seed potato production technology and equipment,so as to increase the application of high-quality micro-potatoes and promote the development of potato industry in China.
    2021,40(4):63-71 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.008
    Abstract:
    Potato,as an industry that enriches the people in the central and western regions of China,plays an important role in increasing income of farmers and boosting the prosperity of the industry in the context of shifting "agriculture,rural areas and farmers" work to comprehensively facilitate the rural revitalization strategy in China. With the development of potato industry in China,the impact of its yield fluctuations on the coordinated development of the upstream and downstream of the industrial chain is increasing as well. To clarify the factors affecting the fluctuation of potato yield and to explore its mechanism is of great practical significance for maintaining the stable and healthy development of potato industry in China. The VAR model was used to analyze the factors affecting the fluctuation of potato yield in China from 1982 to 2018. The mechanism influencing potato production in China was revealed. The corresponding measures and advices for rationally guiding the stable development of potato production in China were proposed. The results showed that rainfall and other natural factors had mostly negative impact on the fluctuation of yield. The social and economic development characterized by urbanization and the level of per capita disposable income of farmers,and the scientific and technological progress and policy factors characterized by mechanical farming and irrigation area had mainly positive influences. Natural conditions,scientific and technological progress and market factors had a greater impact on fluctuations of potato yield,and technological progress and policies had a long-term impact on potato yield. It is recommended to respect the fluctuation rules of potato production and make appropriate policies of guiding production. Promoting the transformation of potato production to per unit yield through improving the efficiency level of potato production. The ability to resist the impact of natural factors,to monitor the natural weather and to warn the main production areas in advance should be strengthened. The steady and healthy development of the potato industry should be promoted by adopting measures in four respects including improving consumption capacity and expanding consumption channels for a variety of potato products.
    2021,40(4):72-79 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.009
    Abstract:
    Control effects of six different treatments on common scab of minituber cultured in vermiculite were evaluated through field experiment,and high-through sequencing technology of 16S ribosomal genes was employed to studied changes in community structure of bacteria. The results showed that the treatment of dazomet+Penicillium 34107 had the best control effect (93.43%),which was significantly greater than the Zhongshengmycin control (65.10%),and had the highest amount of commercial minitubers and economic profit of 3.483×106tuber/hm2and ¥3.570×105/hm2,repsectively. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria,Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the highest in all treatments,but varied in a greater range among different treatments. Except for the treatment of Penicllium 34170,the diversity indexes of bacteria of all the others decreased,however,that of dazomet+Penicillium 34107 was higher than Zhongshengmycin and significantly higher than dazomet (P<0.05). Statistic analysis demonstrated that a total of 185 genera had significantt changes in abundance (P<0.05),of which 92 (49.7%)were common in all treatments. The treatments of dazomet and Penicillium 34107 had the largest number of significantly changed genera (112),while dazomet+Pencillium 34107 had the smallest number of only 30 genera that were signficnatly increased. The abundance of the benificial bacterium (Pseudomonas) was significantly increased in the treatments of both Pencicillium 34107 and dazomet+Penicillium 34107,indicating that Penicillium 34107 applied individiually,or especially with dazomet can promote progation of benifical bacteria in vermiculite. Correlation analysis showed that Streptomyces was significantly positively correlated with 55 genera (P<0.05,r>0.6),including Mesorhizobium,Solirubrobacter,and Asticcacaulis,et al,while negatively correlated with 8 genera (P<0.05,r<-0.6),including Dyadobacter,Pedobacter,Paenarthrobacter,et al. The above results illumstrated that soil disinfection combined with Penicillium 34107 had the best control effect on common scab of minituber,and meantime,improved the bacterial diversity and promoted benificial bacteria. In addtion, Streptomyces was closely correlated with multiple kinds of soil bacteria. These results provide a good method and theoretical basis for the control of common scab of minituber.
    2021,40(4):80-84 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.010
    Abstract:
    At present,the method of cutting potato tissue culture seedling is still using scissors to cut. This method has low efficiency of production and is easy to cause virus infection,which makes it difficult to control the quality of transplanting seedling. To solve the problems mentioned above,using laser to cut potato tissue culture seedlings without contact was proposed. The growth of potato tissue culture seedlings after laser cutting and mechanical shearing was compared. The experimental group used CO2laser to cut potato tissue culture seedlings under the conditions of vertical irradiation,defocus of 12 mm and light output power of 10 W,while the control group used mechanical shearing. Results showed that potato tissue culture seedlings cut with laser did not affect its biological activity. After 21 days of culture,the survival rate,plant height,number of internodes,internode length,stem diameter,root length and fresh weight of root removal of laser cutting were better than those of mechanical shearing for both single-incision and double-incision stems. It is indicated that the non-contact cutting of potato tissue culture seedlings by laser cutting instead of traditional mechanical shearing greatly simplifies the transplantation of tissue culture seedlings,effectively avoids cross-infection of the tissue culture seedlings,and promotes the stem survival of transplanted tissue culture seedlings.
    2021,40(4):85-93 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.011
    Abstract:
    Clinically,flaviviruses can cause central nervous system (CNS) diseases and easily cause sequelae of the nervous system. Flaviviruses can enter the brain through blood-borne pathways,Trojan horse pathways,and axon transport,ultimately leading to CNS infection. When the virus enters the CNS through BBB,glial cells and nerve cells activated by the virus will release a large number of inflammatory mediators and up-regulate the expression of adhesion molecules,recruiting leukocytes to the CNS. Leukocyte infiltration can carry more viruses into the CNS and destroy the integrity of the BBB. It is generally believed that the inflammatory factors produced by glial cells and nerve cells are the main cause of increased BBB permeability. This review will focus on the research progresses of the BBB damage and the CNS invasion to better understand of pathogenesis and effectively prevent the spreading of flaviviruses.
    2021,40(4):94-101 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.012
    Abstract:
    The detection of hatching information of breeding eggs is of great significance for improving the quality of hatching,rational use of breeding egg resources,and improving efficiency of hatching. At present,application of the detection of hatching information of breeding egg is backward in China due to the high labor intensity,the low degree of automation,and the serious waste of poultry egg resources. It is urgent to strengthen the study and innovation of nondestructive detection technology of hatching information of breeding egg to ensure the quality of hatching,realize the breeding of male and female separately,protect animal welfare,improve the benefits of the enterprises,and promote the healthy development of the laying hen breeding industry. The emerging technologies and progress of detecting hatching information of breeding egg at home and abroad during the last decade were summarized mainly from three aspects including fertilization test before hatching,viability detection and sex identification during hatching of breeding eggs from domestic chicken. The problems to be solved and prospects of development are pointed out to provide a comprehensive reference for the nondestructive detection of hatching information of breeding eggs.
    2021,40(4):102-113 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.013
    Abstract:
    To provide a scientific basis for revealing the differences in metabolites related to flavor quality and improving fruit quality,Liangping pummelo fruits under normal cultivation management and no cultivation management were used to compare and analyze their spectrum of volatile substance and main bitter substances in the fruit with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the total monoterpenoids,total sesquiterpenoids,total non-terpenoids and total volatile compounds in Liangping pummelo fruit under no cultivation management were significantly reduced compared with those in the fruits under normal cultivation management. However,the composition and content percentage of the main volatile compounds remained stable. The content of naringin was significantly increased in the flavedo,albedo,segment membrane and juice sacs of fruits under no cultivation management. The contents of limonin and nomilin were also significantly higher in albedo,segment membrane and juice sacs of fruits under no cultivation management. It is indicated that no cultivation management result in a decrease of the aroma and an increase of bitterness in the fruit of Liangping pomelo. The quality of fresh food was greatly reduced,and consumer acceptance was low. The economic benefits and land output values of orchard under no cultivation management caused by continuing rural-urban migration of middle-aged labor force can be improved to some extent through the help from popular health propaganda of bitter compounds.
    2021,40(4):114-122 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.014
    Abstract:
    The effects of different combination of organic fertilizer and bacterial manure on the fruit quality and aroma of Korla pear were investigated to provide reference and basis for improving the quality and cultivation of Korla fragrant pear. The results showed that the application of organic fertilizer and bacterial manure improved the external and internal quality of fruit,significantly increased the fruit weight per fruit,contents of soluble solid and soluble sugar,solid acid ratio,sugar acid ratio and most mineral elements. The content of organic acid was significantly reduced. Organic fertilizer and bacterial manure effectively improved the total aroma substances and content of characteristic aroma,highly increased the contents of three aroma substances including alcohol substance 9-decenol,aldehyde substance 2,6,10-trimethyl-9-undecenal and alkane substance nondecane. The results of principal component analyses showed that the effect of alginic acid flushing with organic fertilizer and bio-organic bacterial manure is the best. 
    2021,40(4):123-132 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.015
    Abstract:
    The mature fruits from 18 gray jujube producing regions in Southern Xinjiang were used to study the differences of fruit quality indicators in each producing regions and comprehensively evaluate the fruits. Based on the results of previous studies,the eugenic zone of gray jujube in Southern Xinjiang was clarified to provide a reference for improving the quality and efficiency of the jujube industry and scientifically developing the gray jujube industry in Southern Xinjiang.The results showed that there were significant differences in the quality indicators of gray jujube among different production regions. There was a close correlation between each quality. Four common factors were extracted by factor analysis,and their cumulative contribution rate was 82.058%. The contribution rate of each factor was used to calculate the comprehensive score of gray jujube in each producing regions and rank. The 18 producing regions were divided into 3 categories by cluster analysis. The results of factor analysis were basically the same as cluster analysis. The comprehensive fruit quality of gray jujube in the southeast of Tarim Basin was better than that in the northwest. The results of cross-analysis with previous researches showed that the four producing regions including Ruoqiang,Minfeng,Luopu,and Qiemo are not only extremely suitable for the growth and development of gray jujube in terms of climate factors,but the comprehensive quality of gray jujube fruit is better as well. It is indicating that these four producing regions are the best eugenic zones of gray jujube in Southern Xinjiang. The restructuring of the gray jujube eugenic zone in Southern Xinjiang is of guiding significance for developing the jujube industry.
    2021,40(4):133-140 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.016
    Abstract:
    To comparison and analysis the amino acid composition and content of core apricot seed kernels in Southern Xinjiang,and to screen out high quality apricot varieties. The amino acids in 29 almonds were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The essential amino acids of 29 varieties of apricot seeds ranged from 4.150 to 13.276 g/100 g,the total amino acids ranged from 11.840 to 42.868 g/100 g,and the SRC values ranged from 23.168 to 67.013. The principal component analysis indicated that serine and cysteine were the characteristic amino acids of apricot kernels in Southern Xinjiang. The contents of bitter amino acids,sweet amino acids,fresh amino acids and medicinal amino acids were highest in ‘Danxing’ and lowest in ‘Luntaitianrenxing’,while sour amino acids contain the highest amount of ‘Huanna’. There are 29 varieties of apricot seeds,with ‘Danxing’ having high aminoacid content and excellent quality. 
    2021,40(4):141-148 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.017
    Abstract:
    During a survey of parasitic disease,a species of Argulus was isolated from the cultured largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) at a fish farm in Wuhan,China. Morphological and morphometric analysis were conducted to identify the species and phylogenetic analysis of Argulus were carried out based on SSU rDNA. The results showed that the parasite was in faint yellow. The total length was 1.93±0.46 (1.42-2.54) mm for female and 2.18±0.49 (1.57-2.87) mm for male. The carapace was horseshoe shaped,with branched pigments scattered throughout the lobes. The sucker consisted of chitinous strips (female:44-52,male:46-47),each of which contains varying amounts of chitinous tablets (female:5-6,male:7-8). Unreleased eggs were founded in the abdomen of female and symmetrical testis were observed in the male’s abdomen. Morphological and morphometric data was in consistent with Argulus japonicus Thiele 1900. Phylogenetic analysis based on ML phylogenetic tree of SSU rDNA showed that Argulus species was divided into three clades. A. japonicus isolates were mainly clustered into Clade I and paraphyletic grouped with Argulus foliaceus and Argulus rhipidiophorus. In conclusion,we identified the Argulus sp. isolated from the largemouth bass as A. japonicus based on the above morphological and morphometric data. Further phylogenetic analysis was also conducted to discuss the phylogenetic relationship within Argulus. To our knowledge,this is the first report of the parasitism of A. japonicus on largemouth bass.
    2021,40(4):149-156 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.018
    Abstract:
    To study the association between the polymorphism of the scxa gene sequence and the intermuscular bone (IB) quantity traits,and to obtain SNPs that are significantly related to the number of IBs in Megalobrama amblycephala,the cDNA sequence of the scxa gene in M. amblycephala was obtained by cloning. Its open reading frame is 609 bp,encoding 202 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the scxa gene of M. amblycephala is highly related with that of zebrafish,common carp,crucian carp,and golden thread carp. The fluorescence quantitative PCR results showed that the expression of scxa in the muscle and IB was significantly higher than that in other tissues,and the expression in the muscle was significantly higher than that in IB (P <0.05). By comparing the scxa exon sequence of the IB-extreme population,2 SNPs and 1 InDel that were significantly related to the number of IB were obtained. This result indicates that scxa gene plays a potential role in the development of IB,and its polymorphism is significantly correlated with the number of IB in M. amblycephala.
    2021,40(4):157-165 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.019
    Abstract:
    The coding sequence of the leptin receptor (lepr) gene in Chinese perch was obtained by RACE cloning method,and four different subtypes of lepr from alternative splicing of the 3′ end of mRNA were obtained. The long-form receptor lepr-L was 3 474 bp in length encoding 1 157 amino acids,and three short subtypes of leptin receptor were lepr-S1,lepr-S2 and lepr-S3,with coding sequence of 1 512bp,945 bp,and 915 bp in length,encoding 503,314 and 304 amino acids,respectively. Sequence analysis and multiple amino acid sequences alignment revealed that the lepr-L contains complete functional domains exclusively,none of the short receptor subtype contains the transmembrane region and intracellular structure,and lepr and its leptin binding domain (LBD) sequence are highly conserved. The lepr gene is highly expressed in the gill,followed by the kidney and pituitary. The lepr mRNA abundance significantly increased at 2 h after intraperitoneal injection of the homologous recombination leptins protein B not A (P<0.05). These results indicated that different leptins may lead to different expression changes of lepr mRNA,and lead to various physiological functions.
    2021,40(4):166-176 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.020
    Abstract:
    Tetraploid loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) exhibits superior growth performance but delayed reproductive development when compared with diploid individuals. To understand the potential molecular mechanism of this physiological difference between-ploidy,the full-length cDNA and 5′-flanking sequence of cyp19a1a in loach were cloned and analyzed,and the expression of cyp19a1a between-ploidy were compared using qRT-PCR method. The results showed that,the full-length cDNA of cyp19a1a was 1 905 bp,which contained a 29 bp 5′UTR,301 bp 3′UTR and 1 575 bp ORF. Some important functional domains were predicted in the cyp19a1a protein,such as I-helix region,aromatase specific conservative region and heme-binding region. Using hiTAIL-PCR method,a 2 040 bp 5′-flanking sequence was cloned,and the typical function element TATA-box,as well as some important transcription factor binding sites such as SP1,AP-1,C/EBPβ,SRY,ER,CREB,GR were predicted. At the age of 12 month,the body length and weight of tetraploids were significantly higher than those of diploids loach (P<0.05). However,the gonadal development of tetraploids was delayed obviously. In both diploids and tetraploids,the cyp19a1a expression was the highest in the gonad,while cyp19a1b was the highest in the brain. The loach cyp19a1a exhibited higher expression in tetraploids than in diploids in all tissues except for the testis. The cyp19a1b expression in the brain was significantly higher in tetraploid female than in diploid female,while an opposite result was observed in male (P<0.05). Combining all results obtained in the present study,it was suggested that the higher expression of cyp19a1a in tetraploids should be due to the special developmental stage of the gonads,and the delayed sexual maturity in tetraploids may partially contribute to its superior growth performance. In addition,as cyp19a1a and estrogen also regulate fish growth through the GH-IGF pathway,it is speculated that the differential expression of cyp19a1a between-ploidy might be related to the different growth performance and reproductive development of diploid and tetraploid loach.
    2021,40(4):177-181 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.021
    Abstract:
    To study the role of L protein in the snakehead vesiculovirus (SHVV) proliferation,the first 900 bases of the SHVV L gene was amplified and inserted into pET-32a (+) to construct pET32a-L prokaryotic expression plasmid,and transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) competent cells. Different temperature,IPTG concentration and induction time were designed and the best expression conditions were selected. The purified protein was purified by NI-NTA affinity chromatography column,and was used to immunize New Zealand white rabbits to prepare polyclonal antibodies. Western blot was used to identify the specificity of the antibody.Indirect immunofluorescence was used to study the location of L protein in channel catfish ovary (CCO) cells after SHVV infection. The results showed that the purified L protein was about 42 ku. The L protein polyclonal antibody can react specifically with the L protein,and the L protein is mainly localized in cytoplasm,indicating that the L protein polyclonal antibody has been successfully prepared.
    2021,40(4):182-190 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.022
    Abstract:
    Citrus wilsonii Tanaka is a kind of medicinal citrus local variety in southern Shaanxi Province. It can be made into Chinese herbal medicine or soaked in water to treat gastric acid,bloating and dyspepsia. In order to provide theoretical basis for the development and utilization of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka resources,the ultrasound-assisted ethanol extraction technology and components of total phenol from Citrus wilsonii Tanaka were studied. Firstly,the five extraction parameters were investigated by single factor test and Placket-Burman design. Three factors with significant effect were selected as ethanol volume fraction,liquid-solid ratio and ultrasonic temperature. On this basis,the central composite design response surface method was used to further optimize. The optimal conditions were as follows:soaking time 15 min,ethanol volume fraction 44%,liquid-solid ratio 45.5 mL/g,ultrasonic time 20 min,ultrasonic temperature 34℃. Under the condition,the total phenol content per gram of Citrus wilsonii Tanaka lyophilized powder was 16.29±0.12 mg gallic acid equivalent. In addition,the results of HPLC showed that there were 18 kinds of phenols in the extract,including 4 kinds of flavonols,1 kind of flavanols,6 kinds of dihydroflavones,4 kinds of phenolic acids and 3 kinds of polymethoxyflavones. Naringin accounted for 91.36% of the total phenol.
    2021,40(4):191-199 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.023
    Abstract:
    Nootkatone is a typical aroma substance of citrus fruits,and valencene is often used as a precursor substance to produce nootkatone in industry. Compared with the method of physical extraction and chemical synthesis,the biotransformation method to produce nootkatone has the advantages of high specificity,speed and efficiency,and can be added to food and cosmetics. In order to screen strains with specific biotransformation functions,soil samples were obtained from citrus orchards,and the growth curve and the yield of the nootkatone produced by the transformation of valencene were used as indicators to carry out preliminary screening and re-screening of the strains. SPME-GC-MS was used to measure and analyze the types and contents of the products produced by valencene biotransformation. The results of physiological and biochemical tests and 16S rDNA sequencing showed that the screened strains were identified as Burkholderia sp.,which was named Burkholderia sp. PZQ14. On the basis of LB medium,the transformation amount of nootkatone was used as an indicator to carry out a single factor test of medium composition,and then the effect of the combination of different mass concentrations of the culture medium components on nootkatone yield was investigated by response surface optimization test. The results showed that the optimal medium components were as follows:glucose concentration of 38 g/L,peptone concentration of 25 g/L,and FeSO4 concentration of 0.60 g/L. The content of nootkatone was 328.69±17.88 mg/L and the transformation ratio was 35.73%±1.24% when three validation tests were conducted under these conditions. The nootkatone yield increased by 251 mg/L and the transformation ratio increased by 27.30% compared with LB medium. It will provide a new way to increase the yield of nootkatone and lay a theoretical foundation for the further industrial production of nootkatone.
    2021,40(4):200-208 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.024
    Abstract:
    Compared with the cold air freezing method, the liquid nitrogen freezing method has a faster freezing rate and is more conducive to maintaining the quality of frozen aquatic products. It has been used in the processing of aquatic products such as shrimp and pufferfish. In order to study the effect of different liquid nitrogen freezing temperature on the quality of seasoned grass carp fillets,the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) were seasoned by vacuum dipping and frozen with liquid nitrogen at -60℃,-80℃,-100℃ and -196℃. The results showed that the liquid nitrogen freezing temperature significantly influenced the quality of seasoned fish fillets. As the freezing temperature decreased,the freezing rate of seasoned fish fillets significantly increased,and the hardness,chewiness,and salt-soluble protein content of the seasoned fish fillets increased,while the thawing loss rate and the cooking loss rate decreased. Moreover,the texture characteristics,cooking loss rate and salt-soluble protein content of fish fillets frozen by liquid nitrogen spraying at -80℃ were not significantly different from those frozen by liquid nitrogen spraying at -100℃ and liquid nitrogen dipping at -196℃,but significantly higher than those frozen at -18℃ and -60℃. Furthermore,the conditioning treatment could improve the freezing-thawing stability of fish fillets. And the quality stability of fish fillets seasoned for 6 h was the best. Grass carp fillets with high qualities could be obtained by freezing fish fillets with liquid nitrogen at -80℃ for 6 h.The study can provide technical support for the production of high-quality frozen and conditioned grass carp fillets,and the appropriate temperature for the processing of frozen conditioned aquatic products.
    2021,40(4):209-218 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.025
    Abstract:
    An independently driven and steered four-wheel platform for detecting phenotype of field crop was designed to stably and effectively obtain phenotype information of field crop with high flexibility. It mainly consists of the walking system,the control system and the acquisition system of phenotype information. Creo software is used to design the structure of the platform and perform finite element simulation analysis under different working conditions of the main frame. A control system is developed with Siemens 1200 series PLC as the main controller to realize the platform’s in-situ steering,lateral movement and Ackerman steering mode control. The four-wheel coordinated control method based on fuzzy PID was used to realize the synchronous movement of four-wheel. This platform can load RGB cameras,thermal infrared cameras,hyperspectral cameras and other sensors for phenotypic information collection according to the requirements of detection,and form a mobile darkroom during the collection process,effectively reduce the impact of the external environment on the effect of collecting phenotypic information. The results of field test showed that a single uninterrupted operation was up to 6 hours under full power. The results of four-wheel coordinated motion test showed that the maximum deviation rate of the wheel speed was 1%,and the average deviation rate of the platform driving straight on cement ground and in the field was 2.14 % and 2.57%,with good mobile stability. When RGB and thermal infrared cameras were loaded for the acquisition of crop phenotypic information,120 breeding plots in field were detected per hour. The RGB images of cotton under the non-dark room environment and the dark room environment in different time periods were collected separately and the leaf area was extracted. The results showed that the RGB images collected by the platform were more stable and reliable. The results of collecting and analyzing RGB images,thermal infrared and hyperspectral images under the dark room environment showed that the images collected by the platform had good quality and effective information.
    2021,40(4):219-230 , DOI: DOI:10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.026
    Abstract:
    In order to solve the problem of the lack of accurate and controllable seed metering device for mechanical film mulching and hole sowing of rapeseed in actual production,a combined device of positive and negative pressure for rapeseed was designed,which adopted negative pressure seed sucking,positive pressure seed unloading,duck mouth hole forming and secondary seed feeding,so as to meet the requirements of 1-3 seeds for mechanical film mulching and hole sowing of rapeseed. By establishing the mechanical model of seed sucking,seed carrying and unloading process and combining with FLUENT simulation analysis,the structure and parameters of the combined positive and negative pressure seeding device for rapeseed were determined.The negative pressure,the height of seed layer,rotation speed of seed metering wheel spindle and positive pressure were selected to carry out the single factor test of seed metering performance with the right rate of seeds per hill and rate of no seed hill as the test index,and the optimization and verification of working parameters were carried out according to the quadratic orthogonal rotation center combination test of response surface method. The results showed that:the primary and secondary factors affecting the right rate of seeds per hill were negative pressure,rotation speed of seed metering wheel spindle and positive pressure.The optimal working parameters of seed metering performance was rotation speed of seed metering wheel spindle at 7.5 r/min,negative pressure at -2 000 Paand positive pressure at 850 Pa.The results of bench verification test showed that the right rate of seeds per hill (1-3) was 88.15%,and the rate of no seed hill was 4.43%,which met the requirements of rapeseed production requirements of mechanical film laying and hole sowing. This study provides a reference for the improvement of rapeseed seed metering device structure.
    2021,40(4):231-238 , DOI: 10.13300/j.cnki.hnlkxb.2021.04.027
    Abstract:
    A texture analyzer was used to conduct the compression and shearing tests on the lateral X axis,lateral Y axis and longitudinal Z axis of Allium chinense seed to explore the effects of force directions and loading speed on the seed mechanical properties of Allium chinense. The results showed that the compression limit loading range of Allium chinense seed in X,Y and Z directions was 89.20-139.20,120.70-294.70 and 101.40-184.60 N,respectively. The compression shear test of Allium chinense seed was conducted at the loading speed of 20,40,60,80,and 100 mm/min. The average elastic modulus of Allium chinense seed under different loading speeds was 1.65,1.07,1.89,2.01,1.85 MPa,and the average elastic modulus of Allium chinese seed in X,Y and Z directions was 2.65,1.30 and 1.13 MPa,respectively. The mean cutting force of Allium chinense seed at different loading speeds was 20.05,12.74,11.23,14.02,16.72 N,respectively. The mean cutting force of Allium chinense seed in X,Y and Z directions was 11.06,18.07,15.73 N,respectively. The minimum cutting force of Allium chinense seed was 6.12 N.It is indicated that the force direction and loading speed have significant effects on the ultimate load,elastic modulus and cutting force. The anti-extrusion and anti-shear ability of Allium chinense seed in y direction was good. It will provide reference for studying the sowing,harvesting,transportation of Allium chinense and designing the machine and tool for Allium chinense.
    Display Method:
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with various algorithms was used to evaluate the quality of Yuan’an yellow tea. After scanning the NIR spectra of 81 samples, 11 kinds of spectral pretreatment methods were used to remove part of the noise information. Then the backward interval partial least squares (bi-PLS) method was used to select the characteristic spectral intervals reflecting the quality of samples. On this basis, the genetic algorithm (ga) was applied to select the characteristic spectral data points, which were used to establish the NIRS prediction model of yellow tea quality, finally the spectral functional group information was analyzed. The results show that the best spectral pretreatment method is multiple scattering correction. When the minimum root mean square error of cross validation is 1.643, the characteristic spectral ranges of bi-pls are 9003.2-7497.9 cm-1, 6101.7-5449.8 cm-1 and 4601.3-4246.5 cm-1; ga algorithm accurately screen 75 characteristic spectral data points. By analyzing the spectral information, 45 spectral data points mainly reflect the functional group information of -CHX, C=O and -NHX, representing the monosaccharide, caffeine, theanine and free protein which are closely related to the quality of the samples. The other 30 spectral data points mainly reflect the combination frequency information of O-H, amide bond and C-H and C-C stretching, representing lignin, starch and cellulose. The bi-ga-PLS model has good robustness and can be used to predict the quality of unknown samples (R2 = 0.942, RMSEP = 1.573). This method can predict the quality of Yuan’an yellow tea quickly and accurately.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    Genuine Tranditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) was listed as one of the Ten Leading Agricultural Industry Chains by Hubei Provincial Committee of the CCP and Hubei Provincial People"s Government in 2021. It will provide a unprecedented opportunity for genuine TCM industry in Hubei. This paper systematically reviewed the current status, the advantages and limits of genuine TCM industry in Hubei. Meanwhile, feasible strategies and measures had been put forward to further promote the high-quality development of genuine TCM industry in Hubei.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    Food safety and consumer rights are guaranteed by egg quality testing. The traditional detection method is manual detection, which has low efficiency. In recent years, spectroscopy technology has developed rapidly in the field of non-destructive testing of egg internal quality. This article aims at internal quality such as freshness, protein content, fat content, blood spot and meat spot identification, fertilized egg identification, breeding egg sex identification and egg embryo viability identification. This paper describes the research progress of near-infrared spectroscopy, visible-near-infrared spectroscopy, hyperspectral imaging technology and Raman spectroscopy in the non-destructive testing of eggs. Finally, the application characteristics and difficulties of spectral analysis technology in non-destructive testing of poultry eggs are summarized. Finally, the development trend of spectroscopic technology is prospected, which can provide technical support for the quality and safety supervision of egg industry in China.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    In this study, SSR primers were designed and developed according to unigenes by analyzing the transcriptome data of Pinellia ternata and the SSR primers were screened to analyze the genetic diversity of Pinellia ternata and it provides support for molecular marker-assisted breeding of Pinellia ternata. The results showed that totally 49 polymorphic loci were detected by the 19 screened polymorphic primer, which show high polymorphism. According to the results of cluster analysis, the 17 strains of Pinellia ternata were clustered into three branches using UPGMA mapping. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that 88% of the total genetic variance appeared within populations. These results indicated that the genetic variation mainly distributed between the individuals in the Pinellia ternata populations. The average differentiation coefficient Gst between populations was 0.124, and the gene flow Nm value was 1.765, indicating Gene communication can be performed normally among groups .genetic differentiation among populations is greatly affected by gene flow. This study uses SSR molecular markers to study the genetic diversity of Pinellia ternata in different populations at the molecular level,explore its genetic structure and polymorphism level. The 19 pairs of SSR primers were developed have certain universality and polymorphism among different Pinellia ternata populations , so that 17 strains of Pinellia ternata materials can be clearly distinguished.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    Plant-based protein meat alternatives are developed to address the sustainability of future food supply and consumer demands for nutrition and health, and the market has grown exponentially in recent years. Although plant-based protein meat products with fibrous textures have been prepared, the ultimate goal of plant-based meat structure design is to have the same nutrition and sensory attributes as animal meat tissues. This paper expounded on the organizational structure and function of animal meat tissues and summarized the materials and product processing of plant-based protein meat, and analyzed the differences between plant-based protein meat and animal meat. In this review, possible directions for the structural design of plant-based protein meat alternatives in the future are proposed, in the hope of providing a reference for the development of novel plant-based protein meat alternatives.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    Water-saving and drought-resistant rice (WDR) is a new type of rice varieties combining strong water-saving capacity and drought resistance with high yield potential and quality. The development of WDR not only breaks through the limitation of water resources to expand plantation range and area of rice and thus helps to ensure food security, but also significantly reduces the labor intensity and the negative impact on environment of rice production by reforming plantation methods. In this paper, the current situation, development prospect and main problems to be resolved in WDR production were discussed based on the previous studies and our investigations. Moreover, the future research work needed to be strengthened was proposed. The main purpose of this paper is to provide a guideline for the future study and development of WDR.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    We aimed to determine the content of peiminine in different tissues of F. hupehensis and species and secondary metabolites of its endophytes. Gas chromatography (GC) was used to determine the content of peiminine in bulbs, flowers and leaves of F. hupehensis. The 16S rDNA and ITS sequencing were used to identify the species of endophytic bacteria or fungi, respectively. And AGAR diffusion and double dilution method was used to study the antibacterial activity of secondary metabolites of endophytes against 10 strains of tested bacteria. The results were described below. Leaves of F. hupehensis had the highest content of peiminine with 3.99±0.10 mg?g-1, which was 1.78 and 4.24 times as much as bulb and flower respectively. Four strains of endophytes were isolated from F. hupehensis, identified as Pseudomonas sp. BM-X-6, Arthrinium sp. BM-Z-5, Aspergillus sp. BM-Z-1 and Aspergillus sp. BM-Z-3. The secondary metabolites of three endophytic fungi had stronger antibacterial activity than Pseudomonas sp.BM-X-6. Meanwhile Arthrinium sp. BM-Z-5 had the broadest antibacterial spectrum, which showed moderate antibacterial activities against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA).
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    Objective: To study the dynamic change process of main active ingredients in P. multiflorum Thunb. in Shiyan City, so as to determine the suitable harvest time of P. multiflorum Thunb. cultivated in this area. Method: the contents of 2,3,5,4"-tetrahydroxystilbene 2-O-glucoside(THSG) and anthraquinones in different forms in different organs of P. multiflorum Thunb. at different growth stages after transplanting were determined by HPLC method. Result: The underground dry matter of P. multiflorum Thunb. increased continuously within 3 years after transplanting, increased fastest in the first 2 years and then slowed down obviously in the third year. The order of the contents of THSG and anthraquinones in different organs of P. multiflorum Thunb. was as follows: unexpanded root > root tuber > stem, and the contents of the above two kinds of substances in leaves were too small to be detected. The contents of THSG and anthraquinones in root of P. multiflorum Thunb. increased almost linearly within 2 years after transplanting, and reached the maximum value in December of the second year, and there was no significant difference between the content of the above two kinds of the substances in the third year compared with that in the same period of the second year’s organs The content of the above two kinds of substances in stems has no significant difference in three years, but there are obvious fluctuations in different seasons, with the highest content in December each year. Conclusion: The quality and yield of P. multiflorum Thunb. in Shiyan area are the best in December of the second year after transplanting, which could be used as a reference for the suitable harvest time of P. multiflorum Thunb. cultivated in this area
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    Comprehensive land renovation in the whole region was born out of the construction of ecological civilization and the strategy of rural revitalization. Because of its scientific content, forward-looking planning and comprehensive measures, it has became a new form of land consolidation. With the help of CiteSpace visual literature analysis software, through 1461 core journals, CSSCI and CSCD research literatures with the theme of "land consolidation" in CNKI database from 2010 to 2021, this paper draws the knowledge map of research authors, publishing institutions and keywords, and uses bibliometric analysis method to review and analyze the development process from traditional consolidation to comprehensive land renovation in the whole region, and systematically analyzes the theoretical context, key areas and frontier dynamics of global remediation, and looks forward to the future research and development direction under the concept of ecological civilization.The research showed that: ①The evolution process of land consolidation can be divided into three stages: traditional consolidation stage, ecological transformation stage and comprehensive land renovation in the whole region stage. The consolidation concepts and approaches are constantly innovating; ②The comprehensive land renovation in the whole region will be led by the land space planning, showing the operation track of "high-level promotion - middle-level adjustment - bottom innovation". In the future, more and more attention will be paid to overall development, especially ecological protection and restoration. In general, the whole area renovation should be based on the concept of ecological restoration, under the guidance of land space planning, adjust the concept of renovation and improve the efficiency of renovation.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    With the continuous expansion of aquaculture in China, mariculture pollution has become one of the important sources of pollution in Chinese offshore area. The relevant requirements of Several Opinions on Accelerating the Green Development of Aquaculture Industry have put forward new requirements for accelerating the green development of aquaculture industry, and it is of important environmental and ecological significance to summarize and develop suitable treatment technologies for shrimp mariculture wastewater in Chinese offshore. This paper outlines the development status of China's shrimp mariculture industry, the characteristics of mariculture waste water and the impact of mariculture waste water on China's offshore waters, details the plant, animal and microbial treatment technologies and resource utilization technologies for shrimp mariculture waste water with cases and literature, and analyzes the advantages, disadvantages and application potential of each integrated technology. Based on the application status of waste water treatment technologies in China's mariculture demonstration areas in recent years, the future management policies and resource utilization of shrimp mariculture wastewater are prospected.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    There are often missing body weight data for some individuals in the breeding procedure of freshwater snails of Bellamya.In order to utilize the information of all individuals with excellent breeding performance as much as possible,an artificial neural network was trained on four morphological traits (including shell height,shell width,aperture height and aperture width) and body weight data of 784 individuals collected from five geographical populations including Yangcheng Lake,Jiangyin,Guanlian Lake,Hong Lake and Xiantao.After this,another 261 individuals sampled from Tai Lake were used to test the artificial neural network model.In the end,anartificial neural network model for predicting missing body weights of Bellamya snails was successfully established.In addition,the artificial neural network model was used to predict the missing body weights of 201 Bellamya snails collected from Weishan Lake,and the determination coefficient of this method was compared with those of two other missing value prediction methods (i.e.,the predicted mean matching method and the random forest prediction method).The results showed that the determinationcoefficient of the artificial neural network model constructed in this study was 0.96 for predicting the missing body weights,which was obviously higher than those of the predictive mean matching method(0.87)and the random forest prediction method(0.85).The results obtained here could provide an efficient method for the prediction of missing values of body weight involved in the breeding process of the Bellamya snails,helping to improve the efficiency of Bellamya breeding.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    Salmonella is an important group of pathogens causing food-borne diseases, and its effective control is of great importance. In this study, according to the analysis of the genome of Salmonella Typhimurium phage T139, a gene sequence encoding an endolysin was obtained. Protein secondary structure analysis and heterologous expression purification were used to successfully verify the lytic activity of the endopeptidase gene orf 40 expression product LysT40 against Salmonella, and obtained a potential anti-Salmonella phage endolysin. The T139 genome was 38,854 bp, with an average GC content of 49.10%, and contained no tRNA genes. Evolutionary tree analysis indicated that phage T139 belongs to the genus T7 phage, and a total of 43 ORFs were predicted, with 23 being assigned known functions. Multiple sequence alignment and conserved structural domain analysis showed that the orf 40 gene encodes a protein (LysT40) containing 126 amino acid residues with a conserved structural domain of phage endopeptidase, making it a possible phage endolysin. Presence of a large number of helical structural structures (70.63%) in the secondary structure of LysT40 allowed the protein to maintain structural stability. The endopeptidase gene orf 40 was heterologously expressed, purified and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western Blot to obtain a single target protein band at 10-15 kDa at a purified protein concentration of 280 μg/mL. LysT40 showed significantly lytic activity against Salmonella Typhimurium pretreated with chloroform or EDTA within 30 min, with absorbance values OD600 decreasing by 0.18 and 0.31 respectively compared to the control. This study may provide a basis for the development of phage endolysin as antimicrobial agents for the control of Salmonella Typhimurium.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    In order to further explore the interaction of elongase 5 (elovl5), elongase 2 (elovl2) and desaturase 2 (fads2) in the synthesis of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in freshwater fish, our study used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to successfully construct zebrafish elovl5-/- (hereinafter referred to as E5-/- group), elovl2-/-*elovl5-/- (hereinafter referred to as E2-/-*E5-/- group), elovl5-/-*fads2-/- (hereinafter referred to as E5-/-*F2-/- group) and elovl2-/-*elovl5-/-*fads2-/- (hereinafter referred to as E2-/-*E5-/-*F2-/- group) four mutations Soybean oil (SO) and Canola oil (CO) feeding experiments were carried out on four mutants. The responses of zebrafish elovl5, elovl2 and fads2 to different fat sources in the feed during the HUFA synthesis process were studied. The results show that in the E5-/- group and E2-/-*E5-/- group, the extension of C18PUFA to C20PUFA still exists, while the E5-/-*F2-/- group and E2-/-*E5-/-*F2-/- group C18:3n-3 (ALA) and C18:2n-6 (LNA) showed significant accumulation. After mutant of elovl2, elovl5 and fads2, elovl4a and elovl4b were induced to express. The results of fatty acid analysis showed that the DHA content of E5-/- group after SO feed was not significantly different from that of WT, and the DHA content of E5-/-*F2-/- group was significantly lower than that of WT group. However, E5-/- group after CO feed was fed The DHA content of the was significantly higher than that of the WT group, and there was no significant difference between the E5-/-*F2-/- group and the WT group. Zebrafish desaturation without fads2 is significantly affected, indicating that fads2 is an essential enzyme in the process of HUFA synthesis. The missing phenotype of elovl2 and elovl5 may be compensated by other HUFA synthesis pathways. This experiment further verified that elovl2 and elovl5 have gene interactions in HUFA synthesis, fads2 as a desaturase is essential for HUFA synthesis. This study provides a theoretical basis for improving the HUFA synthesis ability of freshwater fish.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    From 2017 to 2020, the biological resources of fish, plankton and aquatic macrophytes in the mainstream of Hanjiang River were investigated and analyzed. The results showed that: a total of 98 species of fish were collected, among which the economic fish were mainly carp, crucian carp, silver carp, bighead carp, grass carp, etc.; a total of 116 species of phytoplankton belonging to 71 genera, 7 phyla, among which 46 species were Chlorophyta, and 12 dominant species were bacillariophyta. 86 species of zooplankton belonging to 55 genera were detected, among which 48 species were rotifers, and 8 species were dominant, mainly protozoa. There are 29 species of aquatic macrophytes belonging to 24 genera and 16 families. Compared with the monitoring data in the past, the fish species in the main stream of Hanjiang River decreased, the catch miniaturized obviously, and the fishery resources declined; the species, density and biomass of phytoplankton increased; the species of zooplankton decreased, but the density and biomass increased; the species of aquatic macrophytes decreased. The above changes are related to the construction of water conservancy projects, the change of hydrological regime and the acceleration of water eutrophication. It is suggested to strengthen the protection of fishery resources and environment in Hanjiang River.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    In order to further clarify the role of bacteria in pine wilt disease (PWD), Pinus Massoniana was inoculated with Bursaphelenchus Xylophilus (CK), a mixture of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and the endophytic bacterium GD2(T) respectively. Transcription sequencing, Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG enrichment analysis were performed on the Bursaphelenchus Xylophilus, and Real-time Quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to verify the target Gene expression. The results showed that 143 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected, among which 63 were up-regulated and 80 were down-regulated. The analysis of Gene Ontology showed that the differentially expressed genes were enriched in immune system process, cell membrane, metabolic process, transporter activity and other functions. KEGG pathway was enriched in ECM-receptor interaction, Renin?angiotensin system, Insulin signaling pathway and other pathways. These GO functions and KEGG pathways were involved in immune regulation and reproductive development of the body. Eight genes were randomly selected for RT-QPCR verification, and the expression level was consistent with the sequencing results, which proved the accuracy of the sequencing results. The above analysis provides valuable reference for further revealing the molecular mechanism by which bacteria enhance the adaptability of pine wood nematode to its host.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    Bacillus subtilis L1-21 is an endophytic bacterium to effectively inhibit citrus huanglongbing and canker disease pathogens. In order to provide theoretical basis for practical application, this study investigated the colonization dynamics and downward-conduction of B. subtilis green fluorescent labelled strain (L1-21-GFP) in citrus leaves by foliar spraying suspension with 106cfu/mL. Colonization in citrus fruits was checked through spraying and soaking with 108cfu/mL and control effect was evaluated on green mold by spore injection with Penicillium digitatum and incidence investigation. After 10min treatment, the colonization of B. subtilis L1-21-GFP in leaf surface and mesophyll reached 1.36×103cfu/cm2 and 8.08×102cfu/cm2, respectively, and displayed a continuous increasing trend. One hour after treatment, the GFP-tagged endophyte was stable in leaf surface with 1.51×102 cfu/cm2. The bacterial concentration reached to 5.67 cfu/cm2 in mesophyll after 2 h, which gradually increased to 1.15×103cfu/cm2 after 30h. Endophyte L1-21-GFP could easily colonize in fruits, and bacterial concentration in pulp and peel after 1h was 9.51×103cfu/g and 3.51×104cfu/g, respectively. However, there was significant difference in the colonization ability among fruits of different citrus varieties, and Citrus Reticulata cv Ponkan had the highest colonization. In addition, citrus green mold was successfully control on third and fifth day with 100% and 80.36% control effect, respectively, when soaked once with the bioagent for 30 min. Taken together, overall results of this study could guide us to apply B. subtilis L1-21 for field application of potential citrus diseases.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    草地贪夜蛾是新入侵我国为害玉米的重要害虫。为了明确苜蓿银纹夜蛾核型多角体病毒(AcMNPV)对草地贪夜蛾幼虫的防治效果,采用了室内生物活性测定、田间药效试验等方法,研究和分析了AcMNPV对草地贪夜蛾的杀虫活性和生防效果,结果表明,AcMNPV对草地贪夜蛾2龄幼虫的LC50=2.9×107 PIB/mL;在田间,AcMNPV+Bt复配制剂1千万苜核.苏云菌悬浮剂(1500mL/hm2)药后第10d的平均虫口防效为68.99%,而药后15d的平均防效亦有66.87%,均对草地贪夜蛾幼虫表现出较好的防治效果。最后对试验后死虫样进行DNA同源比对鉴定,polh、lef-8和lef-9基因序列同源性均达到100%。以上结果验证了AcMNPV对草地贪夜蛾有较好的控制作用。面对草地贪夜蛾的严峻防控形势,加快高效杀虫药剂的研发成为当务之急,本文最后对病毒杀虫剂在草地贪夜蛾的防控提出了部分建议。
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    In order to find the regulatory genes related to symbiotic nitrogen fixation in rhizobia, homologous recombination was used to knocked out 10 up-regulated genes during the symbiotic nitrogen fixation of Lotus japonicus and Rhizobium MAFF303099. The result shows that the nitrogenase activity of the Δmlr5883 was 40% lower than that of the wild-type MAFF303099, the infected cells morphology did not change significantly, and replenishing mlr5883 can restore nitrogenase activity. It is predicted that mlr5883 encodes an aspartate aminotransferase, and the aspartate aminotransferase activity of this MLR5883 is 16.67U/mg in vitro. The mutation of mlr5883 will affect the efficiency of nitrogen fixation, and it is speculated that it may be involved in the metabolic process of supplying carbon sources by plants.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    In order to screen or breed the Chinese cabbages with more robust tolerance to high temperature, we have analyzed the genetic diversity of the collected 78 Chinese cabbages, and applied the natural high temperature in summer in Wuhan to investigate the Heat Injury indexes. We have identified one variety (C72) showing a good performance when suffering from heat stress, and this is consistent with the physiological indexes including MDA, POD, SOD, and electrical conductivity. The findings of this study will give instructions on selection of Chinese cabbages that are suitable for growing in summer in the basin of Yangtze river, which is essential for the whole-year supply of Chinese cabbage.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    An experiment was conducted using two conventional rice cultivars with good taste quality, indica rice Yangxizao and japonica rice Exiang 2, with spraying and non-spraying wood vinegar, including four nitrogen application levels (0,50,100,200) kghm-2, to explore the influence of wood vinegar and different nitrogen application on the yield and eating quality of rice. Comparing with non-application of wood vinegar, the wood vinegar application significantly increased yield under different nitrogen application conditions. Spraying wood vinegar had a higher impact on yield increase of conventional japonica rice Exiang 2, especially under low nitrogen level. With the wood vinegar application under different nitrogen application, the processing quality of rice was significantly improved, the rate of brown rice and milled rice was obviously increased. Spraying wood vinegar under different nitrogen application was also conducive to the improvement of cooking and eating quality, increased significantly breakdown, reduced setback and then improved the taste value. The improvement of rice yield and taste quality were more significant when the wood vinegar applied under low nitrogen level. This study provided theoretical and technical support for the application of wood vinegar combined with nitrogen fertilizer in the production of high-quality rice.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    To determine the optimal temperature of embryonic and larval development of Procambarus clarkii, we observe the embryonic and larval development process, and record the survival rate, development time, biological zero degree and effective accumulated temperature at four temperatures (19℃, 22℃, 25℃ and 28℃). The results showed that hatching time, hatching rate and larval development of P. clarkii were significantly affected by temperature (P < 0.05). The embryonic development was accelerated with the temperature increasing within the experimental temperature range (19 ~ 28℃), and the development time at 19℃ was (622.67 ± 6.02) h post spawning, while it was only (349.67 ± 4.63) h at 28℃. The embryonic hatching rate firstly increased and then decreased, the highest (91.03% ± 2.97%) and lowest (40.53% ± 4.97%) hatching rate values were obtained at 22℃ and 28℃. The larval development time decreased with the increase of temperature, and the development time at 19℃ was (304.00 ± 10.73) h, while it was only (194.00 ± 9.03) h at 28℃. The larval survival rate firstly increased and then decreased, the highest (94.37% ± 1.60%) and lowest (82.67% ± 1.51%) survival rate values were obtained at 22℃ and 28℃, respectively. We calculated the biological zero of embryonic and larval development were 7.32℃ and 3.29℃ using the Sanderson-Pearis formul. We further built a temperature-dependent developmental model for P. clarkii embryos and larvae. According to the curve fitting equation, the embryonic and larval development of optimal temperature were 22.06℃ and 22.78℃. Therefore, we suggested that the optimal temperature range of embryonic and larval development was 22 ~ 25℃.
                                                                                                                   
    Abstract:
    Using HPLC and HS-SPME-GC-MS to investigate the changes of nutrients, volatile substances and antioxidant properties during the compound fermentation of goji juice by Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum. The results show that lactic acid bacteria grow well in goji juice, and the pH value is significantly reduced; during the fermentation process, lactic acid bacteria use sucrose, glucose, and fructose as carbon sources to produce acid, and the content of lactic acid, acetic acid and aminobutyric acid are significantly increased, while oxalic acid, malic acid and citric acid decreased significantly; the composition and content of phenolic substances in goji juice were significantly changed after fermentation, protocatechuic acid was not detected in unfermented wolfberry juice, and the content increased to 40.55 μg/mL after fermentation Catechins, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3-hydroxycinnamic acid, and myricetin increased by 13.44%, 42.40%, 170.73% and 12.30% respectively; fermentation of lactic acid bacteria changed the composition and content of volatile components in wolfberry juice. The content of alcohols, acids, and olefins increased, while some substances such as aldehydes and ketones decreased, and volatile components such as ethanol, 1-hexanol, and linalool were newly produced after fermentation. The antioxidant capacity of goji juice was also significantly improved, which DPPH free radical scavenging power, total reducing power and oxygen radical absorbance capacity increased by 21.42%, 14.18%, and 51.75%, respectively. Studies have shown that lactic acid bacteria fermentation has a significant effect on the quality and antioxidant activity of goji juice, which provides a theoretical basis for the development of healthy goji products.
    Display Method:
    2015,34(4):108-113, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1733) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.06 M] (9506)
    Abstract:
    In this study,we investigated the effect of bio-floating bed on growth and muscle quality of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and blunt snout bream(Megalobrama amblycephala) in ponds.Two modes of culture ponds were chosen:one equipped with bio-floating bed was the experimental pond,and the other without beds was the control pond.At the end of the experiment,we measured the growth parameters,the muscle conventional nutrients,water holding capacity (WHC),and texture characteristics using biochemical and physical methods.The results showed that the final weight of fish cultured in the experimental pond was higher than that in the control pond.The hepatic somatic index of grass carp (1.77%) in the experimental pond was significantly lower than that of the control (2.47%).The condition factors of grass carp and blunt snout bream (1.73 and 2.56,respectively) were significantly higher than those of the control (1.64 and 2.40,respectively).There was no significant difference in the eviscerated weight of both carp and bream between the experimental (91.06 and 88.28,respectively) and the control (89.22 and 88.49,respectively) ponds.The drop loss (14.49% and 10.69,respectively) and water loss rate (17.52% and 10.34%,respectively) of the experimental grass carp and blunt snout bream were significantly lower than those of the control.The cooked rate of the experimental fish was significantly higher than the control.The muscle crude fat content (1.89%) and crude protein content (14.60%) of grass carp in the experimental ponds were significantly higher than those of the control (1.54% and 13.46%),whereas muscle water content (81.68%) of the experimental fish was significantly lower than that (82.65%) of the control.There is no significant difference in muscle ash content between the two groups.Unlike grass carp,only muscle crude protein content (17.23%) of the experimental bream was significantly higher than that (15.90%) of the control.The muscular hardness,gumminess,and chewiness of the experimental carp (5 298.10 g,2 450.78 g and 770.78 g,respectively) were significantly higher than those of the control (3 226.79 g,1 881.43 g and 602.80 g,respectively).The resilience (0.31) and cohesion (0.48) of experimental carp were significantly lower than those (0.43 and 0.58,respectively) of the control.However,only the muscular springiness of the blunt snout bream in the experimental pond was significantly higher than that in the control pond.
    2015,34(4):120-124, DOI:
    [Abstract] (2064) [HTML] (0) [PDF 976.50 K] (7738)
    Abstract:
    Effects of soaking temperature,cultivation temperature and watering frequency on the growth characteristics and nutrition of mung bean sprout were investigated. Growth characteristics and nutrition of mung bean sprout were significantly affected by soaking temperature,cultivation temperature and watering frequency (P<0.05). When the bean was soaked at higher temperature (40℃),body weight of the cultivated mung bean sprout was heavier,hypocotyl was longer,contents of free amino acid (FAA),water soluble sugar (WSS) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were higher. The hypocotyl was longer while the diameter was smaller when the bean was cultivated in the relatively higher temperature (30-35℃). When the watering frequency decreased,weight,hypocotyl length and diameter decreased,WSS content decreased first and then increased,FAA content increased first and then decreased,GABA content was fluctuated. The optimal germination conditions of mung bean sprout were soaking bean at 40℃ for 5 h,with cultivation temperature of 25-30℃ and watering once per hour.
    2013,32(4):48-54, DOI: 1000-2421(2013)04-0048-07
    [Abstract] (1916) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.58 M] (6446)
    Abstract:
    The spatial distribution of Valley County land use degree in 2009 was studied and the spatial autocorrelation of land use degree and its driving factors in different scales were analyzed.A spatial autoregressive model and geographically weighted regression model was established from the perspective of global local.The results showed that there was a certain spatial autocorrelation in land use degree and its driving factors with scale effect.Spatial regression model could estimate the overall parameter of various factors while geographically weighted regression model could give the local parameter of various factors.Scales of geographical weighted regression model could reflect the detailed geographical information to some extent.
    2015,34(3):8-12, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1298) [HTML] (0) [PDF 3.41 M] (5216)
    Abstract:
    pCB302-3 is a plant mini-binary stable transformation vector.To investigate the transient expression of pCB302-3 vector in plant,GFP was inserted into pCB302-3 vector as a reporter gene,and various factors including density of Agrobacterium cell,supplementation of gene silencing suppression p19 and days post infiltration were optimized based on agroinfiltration method in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves.Results showed that high levels of GFP expression were observed in N.benthamiana leaves 3-5 d after infiltration by Agrobacterium cell suspension contained pCB302-3-GFP with an optical density (D600) of 0.8-1.0 co-infiltrated with p19 gene.
    2015,34(1):128-135, DOI:
    [Abstract] (2195) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.21 M] (5033)
    Abstract:
    In order to overcome the transition,field operation, and standardized batch production difficulties of the existing track cargo vehicle in mountainous orchard, as well as to raise the utilization rate, the mountain orchard detachable unidirectional traction double track cargo vehicle was developed. This paper introduced the whole machine structure, the wire rope diameter selection,the minimum track inclination,the maximum track distance,the minimum track turning radius and the working principle of the rope brake device. Load experiments were carried out to test the cargo′s synthetic track function. It is indicated by calculation that the wire rope diameter should be 7.7 mm,the minimum track inclination was 5.7°, the maximum track distance was 170 m, the minimum track horizontal turning radius was 7 m, and the minimum track vertical turning radius was 2 m. Load experiment results indicated that the cargo vehicle′s uplink average speed was 0.51 m/s, the downlink average speed was 0.54 m/s, the average energy consumption was 1.235 kW·h and the effective use degree was 100%. This cargo vehicle was suitable for fruit, pesticide, chemical fertilizer and other cargo transportation in the mountain orchard. Meanwhile, it can be applied to carry the spraying machine, the shave machine and other agricultural machines.
    2012,31(1):16-22, DOI: 1000-2421(2012)01-0016-07
    [Abstract] (2410) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.07 M] (4956)
    Abstract:
    Nitrogen is one of essential nutrients for plant growth.Under the N deficiency at different time points,the dynamic changes of the expression of genes and activity of enzymes related to nitrogen assimilation in rice were investigated.The results showed that the concentrations of ammonium and nitrate significantly reduced under the N deficiency.Under the N deficiency for a short time,the expression level of genes including NR1, NR2, NiR2,GS2,Fd-GOGAT,GDH2,GDH3 in the shoots as well as NR1,NR2,GDH4 in the roots were up-regulated,and then their expression level decreased after a long time under the N deficiency.Along with the extension of time under the N deficiency,the GS,Fd-GOGAT activities in whole plants,NR activity in shoots and NADH-GOGAT activity in roots decreased while the NADPH-GDH activity in shoots increased.In roots the activities of NR,GDH increased at first and then decreased,while in shoots the NiR activity was just the opposite.Re-supplied N after 7 days of N deficiency,the transcriptional expression level and enzyme activities of NR,NiR,GS,GOGAT,GDH restored,and expression level of some genes increased as well.
    2013,32(5):124-133, DOI: 1000-2421(2013)05-0124-10
    [Abstract] (1467) [HTML] (0) [PDF 4.01 M] (4796)
    Abstract:
    Bacterial canker is a devastating disease of kiwifruit. In recent years,the disease is showing a tendency to outbreak in such countries as Italy and New Zealand,where kiwifruit is a major crop,and has the trends to further spread worldwide,which will be a serious threat to the development of the kiwifruit industry. Based on the latest research reports, this paper summarized the symptoms,pathogen identification,rapid detection methods,virulence differences,infected mechanism,epidemiology and control technology of the disease. Meanwhile,the future research prospect of kiwifruit bacterial canker was also discussed in order to reduce the loss and risk of the kiwifruit industry.
    2012,31(1):127-132, DOI: 1000-2421(2012)01-0127-06
    [Abstract] (1594) [HTML] (0) [PDF 930.13 K] (4338)
    Abstract:
    Post-harvest strawberries are susceptible to the decay of fruit and deterioration of quality due to pathogenic fungi infections,a main factor leading to economic losses for both growers and retailers.With the increase of strawberries planting in China,it is urgent to effectively reduce post-harvest rots of strawberry fruits.In this review,new management developments for controlling fungal diseases in post-harvest strawberry were summarized in terms of physical,chemical and biological approaches,which can help to extend the on-shelf time of strawberry fruits.
    2012,31(5):569-573, DOI: 1000-2421(2012)05-0569-05
    [Abstract] (1275) [HTML] (0) [PDF 912.59 K] (4331)
    Abstract:
    Hydroponic experiments of strawberry were conducted with three formulations of nutrient solution to select the best formulations for soilless cultivation of strawberry.Several main characteristics of growth including the fresh weight and dry weight of overground plant and root,the growth of crown,the photosynthetic and quality of strawberry,the diameter of staminate flower,the growth amass were investigated.The results showed that the effect of nutrient solution with the content of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate,potassium nitrate,ammonium dihydrogen phosphate,magnesium sulfate and ammonium nitrate at 295,303,62,246,0 mg/L on the growing status and fruit quality of strawberry are better than that of the other 2 treatments.This nutrient solution formula was the most propitious for the growth of ‘Jingyao’ strawberry and the enhancement of the fruit quality among the three different treatnments.That is,it facilitated the growth of strawberry in alimentation growth periods,and the leaves of ‘Jingyao’ strawberry was larger and thicker with a dark-green color,and the diameter of the pedicel was also larger. In addition,the nutrient solution formula was also conducive to the flowering promotion and the reproductive growth of strawberry,and resultes showed that the single fruit weight,yield and fruit quality is the best comparing to the other treatments.The results of this study provided academic and technological basis for establishing high yield and quality of strawberry in greenhouse substrate culture of irrigation and nitrogen application system. 
    2016,35(1):81-85, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1016) [HTML] (0) [PDF 943.32 K] (4241)
    Abstract:
    Using Mesorhizobium sp.S-15 and Paenibacillus sp.S-17 as experimental strains.After cell disruption,NH4OAc extraction,H2O2 solution digestion or without any pre-treatment,K+ content in the fermentation broth of potassium solubilizing bacteria was determined with flame photometer.The efficiency of K solubilizing by potassium solubilizing bacteria in the culture medium was calculated.The results showed that the standard curves of the three kinds of K series of standard solutions were similar with the R2 values of 0.994 4,0.999 7 and 0.999 8,respectively.After digested by H2O2 solution,concentration of K+ was detected.The efficiency of two strains was 101.1% and 125.1%,significantly higher than that of other groups.The efficiency of potassium solubilizing detected after H2O2 digestion well reflected potassium solubilization of bacteria.
    2014,33(2):139-144, DOI: 1000-2421(2014)02-0139-06
    [Abstract] (1342) [HTML] (0) [PDF 968.56 K] (4200)
    Abstract:
    Algae are lower photosynthetic autotrophs which have close relationship with agricultural activities.With the deep understanding of physiological and ecological characteristics,algae have used more and more widelyin the practice of agricultural activities.This paper reviews the application of algaeas a resourcein agricultural activities including improvement of agricultural environment,utilized as food or food additives and health care products,as well as feed or bait.
    2015,34(3):134-141, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1260) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.42 M] (4017)
    Abstract:
    Soil salinity is a major environmental constraint to agricultural productivity.It is a complex network for plant adaptation to salt stress,and it is still a great challenge to improve crop salt tolerance.Mechanisms of SOS signal transduction pathway on Na+ exclusion and compartmentation,the regulation of microRNA and transcription factors involved in salt stress were reviewed.It will provide a fundamental understanding and knowledge for studying salt resistance and breeding salt tolerance in plants.
    2011,30(5):613-617, DOI: 1000-2421(2011)05-0613-05
    [Abstract] (1288) [HTML] (0) [PDF 914.54 K] (4003)
    Abstract:
    Pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of spraying different micronutrients and amino acids into the surface of leaves on yield and quality of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.).The results showed that methionine,zinc,molybdenum,boron and glycine could increase yield of Chinese cabbage.The treatments of spraying methionine,zinc and molybdenum increased yield of Chinese cabbage significantly.All treatments could reduce the nitrate content of Chinese cabbage with the highest decrease of 35.0% compared with the control.Molybdenum,boron,zinc and methionine might reduce nitrate content of Chinese cabbage significantly.Experiment also indicated that glycine,proline and selenium could both increase the contents of vitamin C,soluble sugar and soluble protein of Chinese cabbage.Therefore,spraying micronutrient or amino acids into the surface of leaves is a good application for increasing yield,reducing nitrate content and improving quality of Chinese cabbage.
    2014,33(06), DOI:
    [Abstract] (824) [HTML] (0) [PDF 8.30 M] (3962)
    Abstract:
    The development of Golden Rice to date has taken longer than anticipated.It has been proven to have the potential to assist in the alleviation of an important public health problem,vitamin A deficiency,affecting millions.Complying with the highly precautionary,and now proven unnecessary,UN Cartagena Protocol for Biosafety has impeded scientific progress and scientific collaboration,particularly by delaying the selection of phenotypes grown in the open field.So far therefore,Golden Rice has not been able to assist in combatting vitamin A deficiency,identified by the UN as an important public health target for 25 years,and which continues to cause preventable deaths and blindness.However,the inventor’s original vision of the donation of the technology to assist the resource poor who want to benefit from it remains firm and achievable,subject to continuing philanthropic and public sector funding.
    2014,33(2):15-21, DOI: 1000-2421(2014)02-0015-07
    [Abstract] (1788) [HTML] (0) [PDF 980.62 K] (3957)
    Abstract:
    Teosinte is the ancestor of maize,and plays an important role in maize domestication process and gene cloning.Solexa RNA-Seq was used to de novo assembly and analyze the transcriptome of teosintes.40.6 GB raw data were produced,including 175 101 250 reads of 76 bp length.After quality control and de novo assembly,58 147 teosinte transcripts with an average length of 1 335 bp were obtained.After bioinformatically comparing,it was found that 94.3% of teosinte transcripts had good matching with B73 cDNAs,and that 84.1% of the transcript had good matching with rice,84.6% with sorghum and 83.9% with brachypodium at protein level.This research will provide a reference for subsequent studies on maize evolution and gene discovery.
    2014,33(01):12-17, DOI: 1000-2421(2014)01-0012-06
    [Abstract] (1564) [HTML] (0) [PDF 944.55 K] (3955)
    Abstract:
    Seventeen pairs of SSR primers with clear polymorphic bands were screened from 60 pairs of SSR locus covering 17 linkage groups of pear genetic map and amplified with 20 pear cultivars.136 polymorphic bands in total were obtained with 5~11 bands per primer locus (8.0 bands on average).The polymorphism information content (PIC) of the 17 SSR loci ranged from 0.614 to 0.848 with an average of 0.733.All pear cultivars studied could be identified with 38 different combinations of 2 markers each.Bands amplified by each marker were coded based on size of fragment and used as a molecular ID.
    2014,33(2):96-102, DOI: 1000-2421(2014)02-0096-07
    Abstract:
    A 90-day study was conducted to investigate effects of dietary lipid levels on performance,fat deposition,activity and expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in GIFT tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juvenile,and to explore the correlation between LPL gene expression and fat deposition.315 GIFT tilapia juveniles(average weight 2.63±0.16 g) were randomly divided into three groups with three replications,and fed with isonitrogenous diets with different lipid levels of 3.7% (low-lipid group),7.7%(middle-lipid group)and 16.6% (high-lipid group) by supplementing with 2%,6% and 15% fish oil as lipid source,respectively.The results showed:(1) the hepatosomatic index (HSI),viscerosomatic index (VSI) and lipid contents in liver and muscle increased with increasing dietary lipid level(P<0.05),but there was a trends for condition factor (CF) with first increased then decreased (P>0.05); (2)with increasing dietary lipid levels, the weight gain (WG) first increased, then decreased, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) decreased(P<0.05); (3)LPL gene was expressed in liver and muscle of GIFT tilapia,while the expression level in liver was significantly higher than that in muscle (P<0.05); (4) during the 48 h post-refeeding period,liver LPL activity in high-lipid group was significantly higher than that in low-lipid and middle-lipid group at 6 h,but significantly lower than that in low-lipid group at the 12 h,24 h and 48 h.There was a trend in low-lipid and middle-lipid group that liver LPL activity increased first and then decreased; (5) the expression of LPL was significantly higher in high-lipid group than that in low-lipid group (P<0.05); (6) there were a significant linear positive correlation between HSI,lipid contents in liver and muscle,and liver LPL expression in GIFT tilapia juvenile.The results indicated that LPL expression in GIFT tilapia was in a tissue specific pattern and liver was the main organ for secretion and expression of LPL; high dietary lipid level could inhibit growth of GIFT tilapia juvenile,decrease feed conversion ratio,induce the expression of LPL in liver,and promote fat deposition in liver and muscle; liver LPL expression was involved in fat deposition of GIFT tilapia juvenile.
    2010,29(3):363-368, DOI: 1000-2421(2010)03-0363-06
    [Abstract] (2580) [HTML] (0) [PDF 11.41 M] (3865)
    Abstract:
    The index of heat injury and leaf anatomical structure under the scanning electron microscope of six Primula species were measured to study the responsive mechanism of Primula to the high temperature and to select the heat resistant Primula species.The results showed that Primula forrestii and P.malacoides franch had higher heat-resistance than that of P.obconica,P.veris,P.saxatilis,P.denticulatess.,P.sinodenticulata with lowest heat-resistance.Leaf anatomical structures of Primula associated with heat-resistance included leaf thickness,tightness of mesophyll cell arrangement,the number of open stomata,the number of epidermal hair and powders of leaves.
    2011,30(4):488-493, DOI: 1000-2421(2011)04-0488-06
    [Abstract] (1207) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.81 M] (3845)
    Abstract:
    The morphological variations and discriminant methods of Channa argus (♂),C.maculata (♀) and their hybrid were studied using traditional morphometrics and the truss network analysis.Body color of C.argus,C.maculata and their hybrid were observed.The results showed significant differences between C.argus and C.maculata from stripe at top of head,side and base of caudal fin,and the hybrid resembled C.maculata from body color.Among eleven meristic characters,the numbers of soft ray of pelvic fin were consistent in these three species,and the numbers of soft ray of pectoral fin deviated from its male parent’s species.The other meristic characters were within the range of its parent’s,the average hybrid index was calculated to be 53.45.The chi-square analysis of meristic characters showed that:there were significant differences(P<0.05) or greater significant differences(P<0.01) between C.argus and C.maculata except the number of pectoral fin rays; greater significant differences(P<0.01) between C.argus and the hybrid except the number of tail fin rays,gill rakers,lateral line scales and scales below lateral line; and significant differences(P<0.05) or greater significant differences(P<0.01) between C.maculata and the hybrid except the number of tail fin rays and gill rakers.Among meristic characters,the number of dorsal fin rays,lateral line scales and scales above lateral line can be used as preliminary indicators to determine the three species.Among ten measurable characters,the average hybrid index was calculated to be 73.90,indicating the measurable character inclined to its male parent’s species (C.argus).Cluster analysis,discriminant analysis and principal component analysis were applied to the measurable character data and the truss network data.The results indicated that the hybrid resembled C.argus from body shape,and there were greater morphological differences among C.argus,C.maculata and their hybrid.Differences between them involved the entire body.Three species could be distinguished by using the 3 formulae established with discriminant analysis which the discrimination accuracy was 100.0%.
    2010,29(6):798-804, DOI: 1000-2421(2010)06-0798-07
    [Abstract] (1076) [HTML] (0) [PDF 996.73 K] (3761)
    Abstract:
    The cracking of fruit skin and the splitting of underlying flesh is a kind of fruit physiological disorder,which downgrades the fruit appearance quality and causes the infection of disease,thereby reducing the commercial value and resulting in serious economic loss.Herein recent studies on fruit cracking were reviewed,mainly focusing on the influence of phenotypic characteristics,genetic factor,physiological characters,mineral nutrients,environmental conditions,plant growth regulators and cultivation practices.The prospect of research was discussed.

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