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  • Studies on the Causes of ‘Dongshi Zaoyou’ pummelo Seedlessness
    liuchenglang huangwenkai yansuyun zhouxianyan dongmeichao xuxiangzeng gaoshide gaojunyan dengxiuxin chailijun
    Adopted date: April 22,2024
    [Abstract](2) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    Fruit seedlessness is a major excellent agronomic trait of citrus, in order to clarify the cause of seedlessness of ‘Dongshi Zaoyou’ pummelo. Taking ‘Dongshi Zaoyou’ pummelo and its hybrid offspring as the main test materials, we explored the causes of seedlessness of ‘Dongshi Zaoyou’ pummelo by using the staining methods of magenta acetate and aniline blue, cross-pollination and molecular markers. The results showed that ‘Dongshi Zaoyou’ pummelo was observed to have complete floral structures, pollen viability and pollen germination rates of 94.80% and 86.62%, respectively. ‘Dongshi Zaoyou’ pummelo showed self-incompatibility, whereas crosses with ‘Shatianyou’ pummelo showed cross-compatibility. A total of 164 F1 hybrids were identified from 175 cross progenies of ‘Shatianyou’ pummelo × ‘Dongshi Zaoyou’ pummelo using S5/S6-genotyped molecular markers, which excluded the possibility of male sterility in ‘Dongshi Zaoyou’ pummelo. In addition, the fruit set percentage of ‘Dongshi Zaoyou’ pummelo was 13.04% and 25.56% for two consecutive years with stimulating parthenocarpy and natural parthenocarpy, respectively. It was inferred that the self-incompatibility of ‘Dongshi Zaoyou’ pummelo and its ability to produce a partial parthenocarpy were the main reasons for its seedlessness.
    Recognition of tea leaf disease based on improved Faster RCNN
    JIANG Sheng CAO Yapeng LIU Ziyi ZHAO Shuai ZHANG Zhenyu WANG Weixing
    Adopted date: April 22,2024
    [Abstract](3) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    Aiming at the problems such as complex tea garden background, different scale of tea diseases, minimal disease spots and easy to miss and misdetect, an improved Faster RCNN model was proposed to identify tea leaf diseases.By comparing the feature extraction network VGG-16, mobilenetv2 and ResNet50 with optimized region suggestion frame, ResNet50 is selected as the backbone network with good effect;FPN network is integrated to improve the problem of missing detection of small targets and multi-scale problem of disease spots;Rank & Sort (RS) Loss function is used to replace the loss function in the original Faster RCNN to alleviate the impact of uneven sample distribution on model performance.The results show: The average precision mAP of the model proposed in this study was 88.06%, the detection speed was 19.1 frames /s, and the average accuracy of the identification of algal spot, white star disease, anthrax and soot disease was 75.54%, 86.84%, 90.42% and 99.45%, respectively. Compared with the original Faster RCNN model, the improvements were 40.98%, 44.16%, 13.9% and 2.43%, respectively.The results showed that this study could well detect and identify tea leaf diseases under the complex background of tea gardens, meet the requirements of tea leaf disease detection, provide reference for tea disease detection under natural environment, and have important research significance for tea disease prevention.
    Cloning, identification and application of glyphosate-resistant EPSPS from Halomonas sp.
    DingNing HeYunhao WuLinfei LiChanjuan WuGaobing
    Adopted date: April 22,2024
    [Abstract](4) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    Glyphosate and glufosinate are two widely used non-selective herbicides globally. The former inhibits the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) in the plant's shikimate acid metabolic pathway, while the latter inhibits the glutamine synthetase (GS) essential for plant ammonia assimilation. Both herbicides can non-selectively kill annual plants, including crops. The introduction of glyphosate-resistant genes into crops confers herbicide tolerance (HT) to the crops, which holds significant value in the field of molecular breeding. This study isolated a halophilic bacterium (Halomonas sp.) with high resistance to glyphosate from marine bacteria. Through genome sequencing and bioinformatic analysis, the coding gene (fHoEPSPS) for 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) in this strain was identified to encode a bifunctional enzyme (fHoEPSPS) fused with a prephenate dehydratase (PDT) domain. The full-length fHoEPSPS, the G384A mutant (mfHoEPSPS), and a mutant lacking the N-terminal PDT domain (mHoEPSPS) were recombinantly expressed and purified in E. coli (DE3). Glyphosate resistance analysis revealed that the resistance of mfHoEPSPS was 19 times higher than that of fHoEPSPS. The introduction of the mHoEPSPS coding gene into tobacco confers a 3 times the recommended dosage of glyphosate tolerance. Moreover, to develop enzyme with both glyphosate and glufosinate tolerance, we constructd a chimeric enzyme by linking the glufosinate -resistant enzyme (Repat) at the N-terminus of mHoEPSPS with the self-cleaving peptide LP4/2A, resulting RLH. Tobacco transformed with the RLH gene exhibited simultaneous tolerance to 3-5 times the recommended dosage of glyphosate/glufosinate compound herbicides. This research provides new genetic resources for the breeding of HT crops and provide us new insights into the cultivation of dual-resistant glyphosate/glufosinate crops to address the evolution of glyphosate-resistant weeds.
    Assessment of ecological spillover value of cultivated land and its temporal and spatial changes in Yangtze River Economic Belt from a Green and Low-Carbon perspective
    Xia Weiqi Zhang Minghui Zhang Anlu
    Adopted date: April 18,2024
    [Abstract](13) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    In order to assess the ecological spillover value of cultivated land in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, this study uses the Equivalent Factor Approach, the Environmental Cost Approach, and the carbon footprint of cultivated land to measure the ecological positive and negative values of cultivated land. Then, the supply and demand of cultivated land is combined to classify the eleven provinces (cities) of the Yangtze River Economic Belt into cultivated land ecological surplus areas, balance areas, and deficit areas. Meanwhile, we have analyzed the characteristics of their spatial and temporal changes. Results show that: Firstly, from 2011 to 2021, the total ecological value of cultivated land in the Yangtze River Economic Belt shows an increasing trend, rising from 367.037 billion yuan to 466.155 billion yuan. The ecological spillover value of cultivated land also gradually increases, from 135.382 billion yuan to 197.077 billion yuan. Secondly, cultivated land resources in the Yangtze River Economic Belt are in a surplus state overall. The ecological value of cultivated land exhibits an “east-low and west-high” pattern. Sichuan has the highest ecological value and surplus quantity of cultivated land, while Shanghai has the lowest ecological value. Only Shanghai and Zhejiang belong to the cultivated land ecological deficit area among the 11 provinces (cities). Thirdly, from 2011 to 2021, the cultivated land ecological values of Zhejiang and Shanghai are deficit, Sichuan is in the ecological high-surplus area, Chongqing and Guizhou are in a balanced state, and Jiangxi, Anhui, and Jiangsu show no significant changes in the ecological surplus or deficit of cultivated land. Yunnan and Hubei provinces see an increase in the ecological surplus of cultivated land, while Hunan province experiences a decrease. This study provides reference and guidance for cultivated land protection and the promotion of green and low-carbon development.
    "Market-government" co-construction mechanism: a framework for promoting low-carbon agriculture in China
    Zhanghaizhao Zhouhui Shizizhong Huxiangdong
    Adopted date: April 16,2024
    [Abstract](12) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    In promoting the realization of the "dual carbon" goals, the agricultural sector holds tremendous potential. However, the actual progress in unlocking this potential has been relatively slow. Currently, China's agriculture is at a crucial juncture in its low-carbon transformation and urgently needs to define mechanisms to steadily advance low-carbon agriculture in the new era. This paper delves into a plethora of literature to uncover the specific challenges facing China's agriculture in its low-carbon transition and theoretically analyzes the key bottlenecks during this transformation. Building on these analyses, an identification of opportunities for the stable development of low-carbon agriculture in China is conducted. The research indicates significant pressures in the agricultural sector during the transition towards a low-carbon model. These pressures are primarily characterized by the absence of mechanisms to convert low-carbon concepts into new avenues for value creation. At the same time, agricultural operators and top-level designs still maintain the inertia of the high-carbon era development models. It is, therefore, essential to re-evaluate the roles of the market and the government in China's transition to low-carbon agriculture, to seize the real opportunities under the "dual carbon" objectives, and to leverage the "market-government" co-construction mechanism. This approach aims to achieve low-carbon agricultural development targets that balance economic efficiency, social benefits, and ecological gains.
    Research progress and future prospects of agricultural carbon issues under the “dual carbon” goal
    tianyun CAI YAN RONG
    Adopted date: April 16,2024
    [Abstract](12) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    Abstract Reducing agricultural carbon emissions and improving the capacity of agricultural carbon sinks are important measures for China to realize the goal of "dual-carbon", which is also where the potential lies. Therefore, it is undoubtedly of great significance to clarify the current status of research on agricultural carbon issues and its characteristics. To this end, this paper comprehensively comprehends the existing studies based on the three dimensions of agricultural carbon emissions, agricultural carbon sinks,and driving factors of agricultural low-carbon development. Specifically, firstly, the basic concepts of agricultural carbon emissions are clarified and common measurement methods are introduced, and reviews the current research status based on the perspectives of temporal evolution, spatial distribution, efficiency characteristics, and emission reduction pathways. Secondly, the basic concepts of agricultural carbon sinks are defined, and then the forest carbon sinks, soil carbon sinks and ocean carbon sinks are derived and their respective measurement methods are introduced, and then it focuses on the net agricultural carbon sinks and the marketization of carbon sinks. Finally, the main factors affecting the development of low-carbon agriculture are discussed from the macro and micro levels, with the former focusing on policy, economic and social aspects, and the latter focusing on the internal factors of the head of the household and the external environment faced by the farmers. With regard to the direction of future research on agricultural carbon issues,this paper believes that it can focus on the following four aspects, namely, the scientific prediction of agricultural carbon peaks and the design of differentiated emission reduction paths,the scientific assessment of the potential for agricultural carbon reduction and carbon sequestration and the discussion of paths to achieve them,the construction of an agricultural carbon market and the exploration of the idea of realizing the value of carbon sinks, as well as the exploration of the matching of the supply and demand of low-carbon production techniques by farmers and the optimization of their systems.
    Comparative study of remediation effects of different passivators in cadmium-contaminated rice fields
    Liu Zhihao Hu Yucong Zhang Jiapeng Gao Dalin Lu Hongjuan
    Adopted date: April 16,2024
    [Abstract](10) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    Soil cadmium pollution is a serious threat to food security and human health, and the problem of cadmium pollution in paddy fields is a top priority for soil heavy metal pollution and prevention. In this study, 10 treatments as T1 (anomaterials, etc.), T2 (lime), T3 (oyster shells, etc.), T4 (CaO), T5 (silica-calcium fertilizers), T6 (organic fertilizers of goat dung), T7 (Bacillus cereus, etc.), T8 (organic fertilizers of pig manure), T9 (oyster shells), and T10 (microorganisms, etc.) were used in the potting test to compare the effects of 10 kinds of passivation on the remediation of cadmium-contaminated rice paddies and the growth of rice. effect and rice growth. The results showed that the passivators could increase the pH of the paddy soil and change the cadmium storage pattern in the soil. The exchangeable cadmium in the soil of each treatment decreased by 4.6-44.8%, with T8 (44.8%), T6 (36%), T1 (31.15%), and T10 (28.4%) showing the greatest decrease. The content of carbonate bound state increases. The content changes of Fe-Mn oxide-bound state and organic matter bound state are not significant. The proportion of residual cadmium shows an overall upward trend with the T6 treatment showing the greatest increase, which was 53.85% higher than that of CK. Rice seed biomass increased by 5.75%-25.30% in each passivator treatment. After adding passivator, a total of seven treatments were below the national limit standard (0.2 mg/kg), of which T6, T8, T9, T10 seed cadmium content decreased 61.90%, 68.83%, 70.56%, 69.26%, respectively, compared with CK, which was the largest decrease. Combined with the analysis of soil Cd morphological transformation, rice biomass and seed Cd content, the passivation effect was better in T2, T6 and T8 treatments .
    Analysis of ratoon characteristics and yield formation of Yongyou indica-japonica hybrid rice as ratoon rice
    Shen Jianghua Wang Feng Shi Jun Xiao Shan He Shuiqing Wang Yaliang Zhu Defeng Chen Ruoxia
    Adopted date: April 16,2024
    [Abstract](8) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    To investigate the ratoon characteristics and yield formation of Yongyou indica-japonica hybrid rice planted as ratoon rice, field experiments were carried out with two widely used rice varieties Yongyou 1540 and Yongyou 4949, and the indica-type hybrid rice variety Longliangyou 534 applied as the control material. The results showed obvious variations in ratoon characteristics among rice varieties: the dominant regeneration nodes for indica-japonica hybrid rice varieties were the 4th and 5th nodes from top at the lower nodes, which generated a sum of 81.9% and 68.9% of effective panicles with 89.6% and 72.5% of the yield contributions in YongYou 1540 and YongYou 4949, respectively. The panicle lengths and the numbers of spikelet per panicle of these two nodes were significantly higher than the 2nd and 3rd nodes from top, showing a decreasing trend from the bottom to the top. In comparison, the 2nd and 3rd nodes from top at the higher nodes of the Longliangyou 534 were dominant, generating 71.5% of effective panicles and 72.5% of the yield. The spike rate, ratios of effective panicle and yield contribution of were 89.4%, 74.6% and 79.2% for YongYou 4949 seedlings regenerated within 1-7d after the first harvesting, and were significantly higher than those of regenerated seedlings within 8-12d and more than 12d after harvesting. The panicle lengths and the numbers of spikelet per panicle of Yongyou 1540 and Yongyou 4949 were significantly higher than those of Longliangyou 534, and the yields were increased by 21.6% and 17.3%, respectively. The regenerative characteristics of Yongyou indica-japonica hybrid rice varieties, such as the strong regeneration ability of the low buds, long panicles, and large spikelet number of the panicles, are the key factors to achieve high yield when planted as ratoon rice.
    Preventive effect of Bacillus subtilis compound microbial preparation on chicken Necrotic enteritis
    chuyuting zhuyanghua xiechangqing chengguofu huxueying zhangwanpo guchangqin
    Adopted date: April 11,2024
    [Abstract](20) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    In this study, a model of necrotizing enteritis was established by infecting broilers with Clostridium perfringens type G, and the preventive effects of Bacillus subtilis compound microbial preparation on necrotizing enteritis of broilers were studied by adding different compound microbial preparation to feed. A total of 120 one-day-old 817 chicks were randomly divided into four treatment groups: Control group and necrotizing enteritis group were fed a basal diet, Prob1 group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 0.2% microbial agent 1, and Prob2 group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 0.2% microbial agent 2. On days 14 to 16, broilers in Prob1, Prob2 and NE groups produced Clostridium perfringens (CP) by continuous gavage. The test period was 23 days. The results showed as follows: the body weight of broilers in NE group was lower than that in Control group, and the body weight of Prob1 and Prob2 groups at the 17th and 23rd days of the experiment was significantly higher than that in NE group (P < 0.05). (2) The jejunal epithelial cells of broilers in NE group were necrotic and exfoliated, the villus was shorter, the crypt was deepened, and the villus length and the villus crypt ratio of broilers in NE group were significantly higher than those in NE group after the use of Bacillus subtilis compound microbial preparation (P < 0.05). The activities of T-SOD, T-AOC and AKP in jejunal mucosa of broilers in NE group were lower than those in Control group; On day 17, the T-AOC and AKP activities of jejunal mucosa of broilers in Prob1 and Prob2 groups were significantly higher than those in NE group (P < 0.05), and the T-SOD activity of jejunal mucosa of broilers in Prob1 group was significantly higher than that in NE group (P < 0.05). On day 23, the activities of T-SOD, T-AOC and AKP in jejunal mucosa of broilers in Prob1 and Prob2 groups were higher than those in NE group, and there were no significant differences (P > 0.05). The content of MDA in jejunal mucosa of broilers in NE group was higher than that in Control group, and the content of MDA in Prob1 and Prob2 groups was lower than that in NE group at the 17th and 23rd days (P > 0.05). The gene expressions of intestinal tight junction protein CLDN1 and ZO-2 in NE group were lower than those in Control group, and there were significant differences on day 17 of experiment (P < 0.05). On the 17th and 23rd day of the experiment, the gene expressions of intestinal tight junction protein CLDN1 and ZO-2 in Prob1 and Prob2 groups were higher than those in NE group (P > 0.05), and the gene expressions of ZO-1 in Prob1 and Prob2 groups were significantly higher than those in NE group (P < 0.05). The results showed that adding Bacillus subtilis compound microbial preparation to the diet could improve the growth and development of chickens with necrotizing enteritis, increase the antioxidant capacity and intestinal tight junction protein gene expression of broilers, and Bacillus subtilis compound microbial preparation 1 had a better preventive effect on chicken Necrotic enteritis
    Real-Time Pineapple Ripeness Object Detection Method Based on Improved YOLOv8
    ZHOUTAO WANGJI MAIRENGUI
    Adopted date: April 05,2024
    [Abstract](51) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](0)
    Abstract:
    To enhance the accuracy of mechanical harvesting of pineapples in regions with different maturity levels and ensure the quality of pineapples, a real-time pineapple ripeness detection method based on improved YOLOv8 is proposed. Addressing challenges such as small and densely packed targets and light obstruction in natural environments, this study replaces the common convolutions in the backbone and neck parts of the original YOLOv8 model with Depthwise Separable Convolutions (DSConv) to streamline model parameters. Additionally, a Convolutional Block Attention Module (CBAM) is introduced before feature fusion to prioritize important features, thereby improving the accuracy of target detection. The YOLOv8 network's original loss function, CIoU, is replaced with the EIoU loss function to expedite network convergence.Various ablation experiments are designed for different modules in the study, demonstrating the effectiveness of each improvement. The results show that the PmA of the improved model for pineapple maturity detection is 97.33%, which is 5.53, 7.91, 4.38 and 4.66 percentage points higher than that of Faster R-CNN, YOLOv4, YOLOv5 and YOLOv7, respectively. On the premise of ensuring the detection accuracy, the number of model parameters of the algorithm is only 16.8×106. The results show that the improved model improves the accuracy and inference speed of pineapple maturity recognition, and has stronger robustness.