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  • 1  Effect of bio-floating bed on growth performance and flesh quality of fish in culture pond
    王景伟 李大鹏 潘宙 郭威 谢从新 何绪刚 亓成龙
    2015, 34(4):108-113.
    [Abstract](2790) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.06 M](11554)
    In this study,we investigated the effect of bio-floating bed on growth and muscle quality of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and blunt snout bream(Megalobrama amblycephala) in ponds.Two modes of culture ponds were chosen:one equipped with bio-floating bed was the experimental pond,and the other without beds was the control pond.At the end of the experiment,we measured the growth parameters,the muscle conventional nutrients,water holding capacity (WHC),and texture characteristics using biochemical and physical methods.The results showed that the final weight of fish cultured in the experimental pond was higher than that in the control pond.The hepatic somatic index of grass carp (1.77%) in the experimental pond was significantly lower than that of the control (2.47%).The condition factors of grass carp and blunt snout bream (1.73 and 2.56,respectively) were significantly higher than those of the control (1.64 and 2.40,respectively).There was no significant difference in the eviscerated weight of both carp and bream between the experimental (91.06 and 88.28,respectively) and the control (89.22 and 88.49,respectively) ponds.The drop loss (14.49% and 10.69,respectively) and water loss rate (17.52% and 10.34%,respectively) of the experimental grass carp and blunt snout bream were significantly lower than those of the control.The cooked rate of the experimental fish was significantly higher than the control.The muscle crude fat content (1.89%) and crude protein content (14.60%) of grass carp in the experimental ponds were significantly higher than those of the control (1.54% and 13.46%),whereas muscle water content (81.68%) of the experimental fish was significantly lower than that (82.65%) of the control.There is no significant difference in muscle ash content between the two groups.Unlike grass carp,only muscle crude protein content (17.23%) of the experimental bream was significantly higher than that (15.90%) of the control.The muscular hardness,gumminess,and chewiness of the experimental carp (5 298.10 g,2 450.78 g and 770.78 g,respectively) were significantly higher than those of the control (3 226.79 g,1 881.43 g and 602.80 g,respectively).The resilience (0.31) and cohesion (0.48) of experimental carp were significantly lower than those (0.43 and 0.58,respectively) of the control.However,only the muscular springiness of the blunt snout bream in the experimental pond was significantly higher than that in the control pond.
    2  Effects of germination conditions on growth characteristics and nutrition of mung bean sprout
    尹涛 丁俊胄 陈芸 谢雯雯 熊善柏 赵思明
    2015, 34(4):120-124.
    [Abstract](3189) [HTML](0) [PDF 976.50 K](10363)
    Effects of soaking temperature,cultivation temperature and watering frequency on the growth characteristics and nutrition of mung bean sprout were investigated. Growth characteristics and nutrition of mung bean sprout were significantly affected by soaking temperature,cultivation temperature and watering frequency (P<0.05). When the bean was soaked at higher temperature (40℃),body weight of the cultivated mung bean sprout was heavier,hypocotyl was longer,contents of free amino acid (FAA),water soluble sugar (WSS) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were higher. The hypocotyl was longer while the diameter was smaller when the bean was cultivated in the relatively higher temperature (30-35℃). When the watering frequency decreased,weight,hypocotyl length and diameter decreased,WSS content decreased first and then increased,FAA content increased first and then decreased,GABA content was fluctuated. The optimal germination conditions of mung bean sprout were soaking bean at 40℃ for 5 h,with cultivation temperature of 25-30℃ and watering once per hour.
    3  Comprehensive degree of land-use at different scales based on spatial autocorrelation regression and geographically weighted regression models
    宁秀红 郭龙 张海涛
    2013, 32(4):48-54. DOI: 1000-2421(2013)04-0048-07
    [Abstract](3078) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.58 M](8654)
    The spatial distribution of Valley County land use degree in 2009 was studied and the spatial autocorrelation of land use degree and its driving factors in different scales were analyzed.A spatial autoregressive model and geographically weighted regression model was established from the perspective of global local.The results showed that there was a certain spatial autocorrelation in land use degree and its driving factors with scale effect.Spatial regression model could estimate the overall parameter of various factors while geographically weighted regression model could give the local parameter of various factors.Scales of geographical weighted regression model could reflect the detailed geographical information to some extent.
    4  Optimizing agroinfiltration-mediated transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana using pCB302-3 vector
    孙春莲 王洪洋 田振东
    2015, 34(3):8-12.
    [Abstract](2741) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.41 M](7802)
    pCB302-3 is a plant mini-binary stable transformation vector.To investigate the transient expression of pCB302-3 vector in plant,GFP was inserted into pCB302-3 vector as a reporter gene,and various factors including density of Agrobacterium cell,supplementation of gene silencing suppression p19 and days post infiltration were optimized based on agroinfiltration method in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves.Results showed that high levels of GFP expression were observed in N.benthamiana leaves 3-5 d after infiltration by Agrobacterium cell suspension contained pCB302-3-GFP with an optical density (D600) of 0.8-1.0 co-infiltrated with p19 gene.
    5  Effects of nitrogen deficiency on nitrogen metabolism and expression of genes related during vegetative growth stage of rice
    罗 凤 卢永恩 杨 猛 练兴明
    2012, 31(1):16-22. DOI: 1000-2421(2012)01-0016-07
    [Abstract](3314) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.07 M](7014)
    Nitrogen is one of essential nutrients for plant growth.Under the N deficiency at different time points,the dynamic changes of the expression of genes and activity of enzymes related to nitrogen assimilation in rice were investigated.The results showed that the concentrations of ammonium and nitrate significantly reduced under the N deficiency.Under the N deficiency for a short time,the expression level of genes including NR1, NR2, NiR2,GS2,Fd-GOGAT,GDH2,GDH3 in the shoots as well as NR1,NR2,GDH4 in the roots were up-regulated,and then their expression level decreased after a long time under the N deficiency.Along with the extension of time under the N deficiency,the GS,Fd-GOGAT activities in whole plants,NR activity in shoots and NADH-GOGAT activity in roots decreased while the NADPH-GDH activity in shoots increased.In roots the activities of NR,GDH increased at first and then decreased,while in shoots the NiR activity was just the opposite.Re-supplied N after 7 days of N deficiency,the transcriptional expression level and enzyme activities of NR,NiR,GS,GOGAT,GDH restored,and expression level of some genes increased as well.
    6  Research progress on bacterial canker disease of kiwifruit
    李黎 钟彩虹 李大卫 张胜菊 黄宏文
    2013, 32(5):124-133. DOI: 1000-2421(2013)05-0124-10
    [Abstract](2520) [HTML](0) [PDF 4.01 M](6948)
    Bacterial canker is a devastating disease of kiwifruit. In recent years,the disease is showing a tendency to outbreak in such countries as Italy and New Zealand,where kiwifruit is a major crop,and has the trends to further spread worldwide,which will be a serious threat to the development of the kiwifruit industry. Based on the latest research reports, this paper summarized the symptoms,pathogen identification,rapid detection methods,virulence differences,infected mechanism,epidemiology and control technology of the disease. Meanwhile,the future research prospect of kiwifruit bacterial canker was also discussed in order to reduce the loss and risk of the kiwifruit industry.
    7  Design of mountain orchard detachable unidirectional traction double track cargo vehicle
    欧阳玉平 洪添胜 焦富江 苏建 徐宁 李震 陈金德
    2015, 34(1):128-135.
    [Abstract](3021) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.21 M](6823)
    In order to overcome the transition,field operation, and standardized batch production difficulties of the existing track cargo vehicle in mountainous orchard, as well as to raise the utilization rate, the mountain orchard detachable unidirectional traction double track cargo vehicle was developed. This paper introduced the whole machine structure, the wire rope diameter selection,the minimum track inclination,the maximum track distance,the minimum track turning radius and the working principle of the rope brake device. Load experiments were carried out to test the cargo′s synthetic track function. It is indicated by calculation that the wire rope diameter should be 7.7 mm,the minimum track inclination was 5.7°, the maximum track distance was 170 m, the minimum track horizontal turning radius was 7 m, and the minimum track vertical turning radius was 2 m. Load experiment results indicated that the cargo vehicle′s uplink average speed was 0.51 m/s, the downlink average speed was 0.54 m/s, the average energy consumption was 1.235 kW·h and the effective use degree was 100%. This cargo vehicle was suitable for fruit, pesticide, chemical fertilizer and other cargo transportation in the mountain orchard. Meanwhile, it can be applied to carry the spraying machine, the shave machine and other agricultural machines.
    8  Application of algae as a resource in agricultural activities
    常锋毅 潘晓洁 沈银武 李伟 刘永定
    2014, 33(2):139-144. DOI: 1000-2421(2014)02-0139-06
    [Abstract](1846) [HTML](0) [PDF 968.56 K](6526)
    Algae are lower photosynthetic autotrophs which have close relationship with agricultural activities.With the deep understanding of physiological and ecological characteristics,algae have used more and more widelyin the practice of agricultural activities.This paper reviews the application of algaeas a resourcein agricultural activities including improvement of agricultural environment,utilized as food or food additives and health care products,as well as feed or bait.
    9  The present status of Golden Rice
    Adrian Dubock
    2014, 33(06).
    [Abstract](1749) [HTML](0) [PDF 8.30 M](6435)
    The development of Golden Rice to date has taken longer than anticipated.It has been proven to have the potential to assist in the alleviation of an important public health problem,vitamin A deficiency,affecting millions.Complying with the highly precautionary,and now proven unnecessary,UN Cartagena Protocol for Biosafety has impeded scientific progress and scientific collaboration,particularly by delaying the selection of phenotypes grown in the open field.So far therefore,Golden Rice has not been able to assist in combatting vitamin A deficiency,identified by the UN as an important public health target for 25 years,and which continues to cause preventable deaths and blindness.However,the inventor’s original vision of the donation of the technology to assist the resource poor who want to benefit from it remains firm and achievable,subject to continuing philanthropic and public sector funding.
    10  Comparing different methods of detecting potassium solubilizing efficiency with potassium solubilizing bacteria
    王珣珏 黄巧云 蔡鹏 陈雯莉
    2016, 35(1):81-85.
    [Abstract](1943) [HTML](0) [PDF 943.32 K](6022)
    Using Mesorhizobium sp.S-15 and Paenibacillus sp.S-17 as experimental strains.After cell disruption,NH4OAc extraction,H2O2 solution digestion or without any pre-treatment,K+ content in the fermentation broth of potassium solubilizing bacteria was determined with flame photometer.The efficiency of K solubilizing by potassium solubilizing bacteria in the culture medium was calculated.The results showed that the standard curves of the three kinds of K series of standard solutions were similar with the R2 values of 0.994 4,0.999 7 and 0.999 8,respectively.After digested by H2O2 solution,concentration of K+ was detected.The efficiency of two strains was 101.1% and 125.1%,significantly higher than that of other groups.The efficiency of potassium solubilizing detected after H2O2 digestion well reflected potassium solubilization of bacteria.
    11  Advances in controlling of pathogenic fungi infections in post-harvest strawberry
    杨书珍 柳丽梅 彭丽桃 周厚成 潘思轶 张丽华
    2012, 31(1):127-132. DOI: 1000-2421(2012)01-0127-06
    [Abstract](2290) [HTML](0) [PDF 930.13 K](5972)
    Post-harvest strawberries are susceptible to the decay of fruit and deterioration of quality due to pathogenic fungi infections,a main factor leading to economic losses for both growers and retailers.With the increase of strawberries planting in China,it is urgent to effectively reduce post-harvest rots of strawberry fruits.In this review,new management developments for controlling fungal diseases in post-harvest strawberry were summarized in terms of physical,chemical and biological approaches,which can help to extend the on-shelf time of strawberry fruits.
    12  Effects of nutrient solution in soilless cultivation on plant growth,photosynthetic characteristics and fruit quality of strawberry
    曾祥国 冯小明 向发云 吴润玲 张鹏 顾玉成
    2012, 31(5):569-573. DOI: 1000-2421(2012)05-0569-05
    [Abstract](2130) [HTML](0) [PDF 912.59 K](5954)
    Hydroponic experiments of strawberry were conducted with three formulations of nutrient solution to select the best formulations for soilless cultivation of strawberry.Several main characteristics of growth including the fresh weight and dry weight of overground plant and root,the growth of crown,the photosynthetic and quality of strawberry,the diameter of staminate flower,the growth amass were investigated.The results showed that the effect of nutrient solution with the content of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate,potassium nitrate,ammonium dihydrogen phosphate,magnesium sulfate and ammonium nitrate at 295,303,62,246,0 mg/L on the growing status and fruit quality of strawberry are better than that of the other 2 treatments.This nutrient solution formula was the most propitious for the growth of ‘Jingyao’ strawberry and the enhancement of the fruit quality among the three different treatnments.That is,it facilitated the growth of strawberry in alimentation growth periods,and the leaves of ‘Jingyao’ strawberry was larger and thicker with a dark-green color,and the diameter of the pedicel was also larger. In addition,the nutrient solution formula was also conducive to the flowering promotion and the reproductive growth of strawberry,and resultes showed that the single fruit weight,yield and fruit quality is the best comparing to the other treatments.The results of this study provided academic and technological basis for establishing high yield and quality of strawberry in greenhouse substrate culture of irrigation and nitrogen application system. 
    13  Molecular mechanisms of salinity tolerance in plants
    蔡晓锋 胡体旭 叶杰 张余洋 李汉霞 叶志彪
    2015, 34(3):134-141.
    [Abstract](2115) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.42 M](5928)
    Soil salinity is a major environmental constraint to agricultural productivity.It is a complex network for plant adaptation to salt stress,and it is still a great challenge to improve crop salt tolerance.Mechanisms of SOS signal transduction pathway on Na+ exclusion and compartmentation,the regulation of microRNA and transcription factors involved in salt stress were reviewed.It will provide a fundamental understanding and knowledge for studying salt resistance and breeding salt tolerance in plants.
    14  De novo assembly of teosinte seedling transcriptome defined by RNA-Seq
    肖之夏 郑用琏
    2014, 33(2):15-21. DOI: 1000-2421(2014)02-0015-07
    [Abstract](2400) [HTML](0) [PDF 980.62 K](5865)
    Teosinte is the ancestor of maize,and plays an important role in maize domestication process and gene cloning.Solexa RNA-Seq was used to de novo assembly and analyze the transcriptome of teosintes.40.6 GB raw data were produced,including 175 101 250 reads of 76 bp length.After quality control and de novo assembly,58 147 teosinte transcripts with an average length of 1 335 bp were obtained.After bioinformatically comparing,it was found that 94.3% of teosinte transcripts had good matching with B73 cDNAs,and that 84.1% of the transcript had good matching with rice,84.6% with sorghum and 83.9% with brachypodium at protein level.This research will provide a reference for subsequent studies on maize evolution and gene discovery.
    15  Biosafety:Evaluation and regulation of genetically modified (GM) crops in the United States
    Richard E.Goodman
    2014, 33(06).
    [Abstract](2045) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.49 M](5780)
    This review of the safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) crops is focused primarily on the process and progress in the United States (US). It reviews the development of the safety evaluation process from the Asilomar conference in 1975 considering issues relevant to recombinant DNA technology,to discussions between the US government,academic and industrial scientists between 1984 and 1994 when the first GM crops were being field tested and evaluated commercial release for food and feed production. International guidelines were also reviewed for consistency with the US system. The overall process includes consideration of information relating to history of safe or unsafe human and exposure to the gene source and expressed proteins. The primary considerations of safety for dietary proteins are whether or not some consumers are sensitized and have IgE antibodies against the protein encoded by the transgene or whether the transgene represents a risk of eliciting celiac disease. The process considers potential toxic effects of expressed proteins as well as potential impacts on human and animal nutrition. The process in the US is consistent with Codex Alimentarius recommendations. It follows a science based process based on justifiable hypotheses. To date there is no evidence that GM crops approved in the US have harmed human or animal consumers. The evaluation takes into account genetic and environmental variation in products produced by plant varieties and is intended to maintain the standard that foods developed from GM plants are intended to be as safe as non-GM genetically similar varieties.
    16  Establishment of molecular ID for pear cultirars based on SSR markers
    张靖国 田瑞 陈启亮 杨晓平 胡红菊
    2014, 33(01):12-17. DOI: 1000-2421(2014)01-0012-06
    [Abstract](2013) [HTML](0) [PDF 944.55 K](5693)
    Seventeen pairs of SSR primers with clear polymorphic bands were screened from 60 pairs of SSR locus covering 17 linkage groups of pear genetic map and amplified with 20 pear cultivars.136 polymorphic bands in total were obtained with 5~11 bands per primer locus (8.0 bands on average).The polymorphism information content (PIC) of the 17 SSR loci ranged from 0.614 to 0.848 with an average of 0.733.All pear cultivars studied could be identified with 38 different combinations of 2 markers each.Bands amplified by each marker were coded based on size of fragment and used as a molecular ID.
    17  Morphological variations of Channa maculata,Channa argus and their hybrid(C.maculata♀×C.argus♂)
    刘苏 朱新平 陈昆慈 赵建 潘德博 李凯彬
    2011, 30(4):488-493. DOI: 1000-2421(2011)04-0488-06
    [Abstract](2149) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.81 M](5617)
    The morphological variations and discriminant methods of Channa argus (♂),C.maculata (♀) and their hybrid were studied using traditional morphometrics and the truss network analysis.Body color of C.argus,C.maculata and their hybrid were observed.The results showed significant differences between C.argus and C.maculata from stripe at top of head,side and base of caudal fin,and the hybrid resembled C.maculata from body color.Among eleven meristic characters,the numbers of soft ray of pelvic fin were consistent in these three species,and the numbers of soft ray of pectoral fin deviated from its male parent’s species.The other meristic characters were within the range of its parent’s,the average hybrid index was calculated to be 53.45.The chi-square analysis of meristic characters showed that:there were significant differences(P<0.05) or greater significant differences(P<0.01) between C.argus and C.maculata except the number of pectoral fin rays; greater significant differences(P<0.01) between C.argus and the hybrid except the number of tail fin rays,gill rakers,lateral line scales and scales below lateral line; and significant differences(P<0.05) or greater significant differences(P<0.01) between C.maculata and the hybrid except the number of tail fin rays and gill rakers.Among meristic characters,the number of dorsal fin rays,lateral line scales and scales above lateral line can be used as preliminary indicators to determine the three species.Among ten measurable characters,the average hybrid index was calculated to be 73.90,indicating the measurable character inclined to its male parent’s species (C.argus).Cluster analysis,discriminant analysis and principal component analysis were applied to the measurable character data and the truss network data.The results indicated that the hybrid resembled C.argus from body shape,and there were greater morphological differences among C.argus,C.maculata and their hybrid.Differences between them involved the entire body.Three species could be distinguished by using the 3 formulae established with discriminant analysis which the discrimination accuracy was 100.0%.
    18  Effects of spraying micronutrient and amino acids into surface of leaves on yield and quality of Chinese cabbage
    张 木 胡承孝 孙学成 刘金山 陈青云 张 影
    2011, 30(5):613-617. DOI: 1000-2421(2011)05-0613-05
    [Abstract](2241) [HTML](0) [PDF 914.54 K](5579)
    Pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of spraying different micronutrients and amino acids into the surface of leaves on yield and quality of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.).The results showed that methionine,zinc,molybdenum,boron and glycine could increase yield of Chinese cabbage.The treatments of spraying methionine,zinc and molybdenum increased yield of Chinese cabbage significantly.All treatments could reduce the nitrate content of Chinese cabbage with the highest decrease of 35.0% compared with the control.Molybdenum,boron,zinc and methionine might reduce nitrate content of Chinese cabbage significantly.Experiment also indicated that glycine,proline and selenium could both increase the contents of vitamin C,soluble sugar and soluble protein of Chinese cabbage.Therefore,spraying micronutrient or amino acids into the surface of leaves is a good application for increasing yield,reducing nitrate content and improving quality of Chinese cabbage.
    19  Relationship between Leaf Anatomical Structure and Heat Resistance of Primula
    HU Wei-juan ZHANG Qi-xiang PAN Hui-tang DONG Ling-ling
    2010, 29(3):363-368. DOI: 1000-2421(2010)03-0363-06
    [Abstract](3322) [HTML](0) [PDF 11.41 M](5545)
    The index of heat injury and leaf anatomical structure under the scanning electron microscope of six Primula species were measured to study the responsive mechanism of Primula to the high temperature and to select the heatresistant Primula species.The results showed that Primula forrestii and P.malacoides franch had higher heat-resistance than that of P.obconica,P.veris,P.saxatilis,P.denticulatess.,P.sinodenticulata with lowest heat-resistance.Leaf anatomical structures of Primula associated with heat-resistance included leaf thickness,tightness of mesophyll cell arrangement,the number of open stomata,the number of epidermal hair and powders of leaves.
    20  Effects of dietary lipid levels on growth performance,activity and gene expression of lipoprotein lipase in GIFT tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juvenile
    王爱民 杨文平 於叶兵 吕富 吴文静 封功能 王资生
    2014, 33(2):96-102. DOI: 1000-2421(2014)02-0096-07
    [Abstract](2016) [HTML](0) [PDF 1008.91 K](5402)
    A 90-day study was conducted to investigate effects of dietary lipid levels on performance,fat deposition,activity and expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in GIFT tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juvenile,and to explore the correlation between LPL gene expression and fat deposition.315 GIFT tilapia juveniles(average weight 2.63±0.16 g) were randomly divided into three groups with three replications,and fed with isonitrogenous diets with different lipid levels of 3.7% (low-lipid group),7.7%(middle-lipid group)and 16.6% (high-lipid group) by supplementing with 2%,6% and 15% fish oil as lipid source,respectively.The results showed:(1) the hepatosomatic index (HSI),viscerosomatic index (VSI) and lipid contents in liver and muscle increased with increasing dietary lipid level(P<0.05),but there was a trends for condition factor (CF) with first increased then decreased (P>0.05); (2)with increasing dietary lipid levels, the weight gain (WG) first increased, then decreased, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) decreased(P<0.05); (3)LPL gene was expressed in liver and muscle of GIFT tilapia,while the expression level in liver was significantly higher than that in muscle (P<0.05); (4) during the 48 h post-refeeding period,liver LPL activity in high-lipid group was significantly higher than that in low-lipid and middle-lipid group at 6 h,but significantly lower than that in low-lipid group at the 12 h,24 h and 48 h.There was a trend in low-lipid and middle-lipid group that liver LPL activity increased first and then decreased; (5) the expression of LPL was significantly higher in high-lipid group than that in low-lipid group (P<0.05); (6) there were a significant linear positive correlation between HSI,lipid contents in liver and muscle,and liver LPL expression in GIFT tilapia juvenile.The results indicated that LPL expression in GIFT tilapia was in a tissue specific pattern and liver was the main organ for secretion and expression of LPL; high dietary lipid level could inhibit growth of GIFT tilapia juvenile,decrease feed conversion ratio,induce the expression of LPL in liver,and promote fat deposition in liver and muscle; liver LPL expression was involved in fat deposition of GIFT tilapia juvenile.

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