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顿国强,范芯蕊,杨永振,李海山,王晨帆,陈海涛,杜佳兴.基于离散元的插装式大豆排种器改进设计及试验[J].华中农业大学学报,2020,39(3):135-144
基于离散元的插装式大豆排种器改进设计及试验
Improved design and experiment of a plug-in soybean seed metering device based on discrete element
投稿时间:2019-06-04  
DOI:
中文关键词:  精量播种机  大豆育种  大豆排种器  改进型育种排种器  小区育种  离散元  运动规律
英文关键词:precision seeder  soybean breeding  soybean seed metering device  improved breeding seed metering device  plots breeding  discrete element  motion law 
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划项目(2014BAD11B01 -A02);现代农业产业技术体系建设专项(GARS04);中央高校建设世界一流大学(学科)和特色发展引导专项资金暨双一流经费(41113278)
作者单位E-mail
顿国强 东北林业大学机电工程学院,哈尔滨150040 dunguoqiang@nefu.edu.cn 
范芯蕊 哈尔滨工业大学超精密光电仪器工程研究所哈尔滨150001  
杨永振 东北林业大学机电工程学院,哈尔滨150040  
李海山 东北林业大学机电工程学院,哈尔滨150040  
王晨帆 东北林业大学机电工程学院,哈尔滨150040  
陈海涛 东北农业大学工程学院哈尔滨 150030  
杜佳兴 黑龙江省农业科学院佳木斯分院佳木斯 154007  
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中文摘要:
      2BZXJ系列插装式精量播种机配备的排种器在大豆的小区育种过程中,由于护种板结构较长导致出现严重的存种、混种现象,且排种初期存在一定的机具空行程;同时由于排种方向与播种机前进方向一致,导致种粒落地滚动弹跳落点位移较大,株距合格率低。针对上述问题,本研究设计一种改进型育种专用排种器,去掉护种板,增设清种刀以及导种凹槽用以解决存种、混种以及机具空行程的问题。通过建立投种位置的理想数学模型,同时结合排种盘实际结构,确定最佳排种位置以解决种粒落地滚动弹跳位移过大、株距合格率低的问题。利用离散元仿真软件EDEM进行仿真对比试验,模拟排种过程得出种子各阶段运动规律。仿真结果表明:改进型育种排种器投种更早、种粒落地平均位移减小至原平均位移的46%,位移均方差减小至1.95 mm,平均位移波动更小,株距更稳定。田间试验结果显示,改进型育种排种盘内无残留种子,播种带提前;当播种机具作业速度为0.7 m/s、排种器转速24 r/min、株距为7 cm时,粒距合格指数整体提高6.80%、重播指数减少3.40%、漏播指数减少3.41%,试验结果验证仿真结果的正确性。
英文摘要:
      Due to the long seed protection board structure,there are some machine empty travels in the early stage of seeding when 2BZXJ metering device series insert seed in the process of soybean plot breeding. In addition,the direction of seed discharge is the same as the advance direction of the seeder,the drop point displacement of seeds on the ground is large,and the qualified rate of plant spacing is low. Regarding the problems above,a special seed metering device for improved breeding is designed,which removes the seed protection plate,adds seed cleaning knife and seed metering groove to solve the problems of seed storage,seed mixing and empty travel of machine and tools. The ideal mathematical model of seed placement is established. The optimal location of seed placement is determined by combining with the actual structure of seed plate to solve the problems of large rolling spring displacement and low qualified rate of plant spacing. The discrete element simulation software EDEM was used to simulate and compare the draw motion at different stages of the seed metering process. The results showed that the improved breeder seeder planted earlier. The average displacement of the seeds dropped to 46% of the original average displacement,with the mean square error of displacement reduced to 1.95 mm. The average displacement fluctuation was smaller,with more stable plant spacing. Results of field comparison test showed that there are no residual seeds in the improved seeding tray,and the seeding belt was advanced. When the operating speed of the seeding machine is 0.7 m/s,the speed of the seeding device is 24 r/min,and the seed distance is 7 cm. The overall increase of the grain distance qualified index was 6.8 percentage point.The replay index and the missed broadcast index decreased by 3.4 percentage point and 3.41 percentage point. The test results verify the correctness of the simulation results. It will provide a reference for designing and studying the improved seed metering device.
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