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杜俊,夏俊芳,张居敏,胡毅.稻麦兼用型气力滚筒式精量排种器设计与试验[J].华中农业大学学报,2020,39(3):127-134
稻麦兼用型气力滚筒式精量排种器设计与试验
Design and experiment of pneumatic drum type metering device for rice and wheat
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  稻麦兼用  精量排种器  气力滚筒式  种子  精量播种  农业机械  二次回归正交 
英文关键词:rice and wheat dual purpose type  precision metering device  pneumatic drum type  seed  metering seeding  agricultural machinery  orthogonal experiment
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0301300); 中央高校基本科研业务费专项(2662016QD046)
作者单位E-mail
杜俊 华中农业大学工学院/农业农村部长江中下游农业装备重点实验室武汉 430070 dujun@mail.hzau.edu.cn 
夏俊芳 华中农业大学工学院/农业农村部长江中下游农业装备重点实验室武汉 430070  
张居敏 华中农业大学工学院/农业农村部长江中下游农业装备重点实验室武汉 430070  
胡毅 华中农业大学工学院/农业农村部长江中下游农业装备重点实验室武汉 430070 xjf@mail.hzau.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      针对长江中下游稻麦轮作区设计了一种稻麦通用型气力滚筒式精量排种器,滚筒采用对剖式结构,可从径向拆装,简化拆装过程、减少对密封件的影响。以黄华占和郑麦9023为播种对象,以空穴率、合格率和重播率为排种性能评价指标,对窝眼形状、滚筒转速、吸种负压和充种区种层高度对排种性能的影响进行了单因素试验;并通过二次正交旋转中心组合试验对工作参数进行了优化和验证。结果显示:圆锥形窝眼更适合水稻种子,类椭球形窝眼更适合小麦种子;充种区种层高度对排种性能影响不显著,滚筒转速和吸种负压对排种性能有明显影响;分析得到的水稻最优工作参数组合为滚筒转速17 r/min、吸种负压4.6 kPa、种层高度40 mm;小麦最优工作参数组合为滚筒转速21 r/min、吸种负压4.2 kPa、种层高度40 mm。对该参数组合下的排种性能进行验证试验,结果表明:水稻的排种合格率和空穴率分别为86.81%和4.61%,小麦的排种合格率和空穴率分别为81.84%和7.83%,与优化预测结果相吻合,且各项指标满足播种基本要求。
英文摘要:
      A rice-wheat universal pneumatic roller precision seed metering device was designed for the rice-wheat rotation area in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.The roller adopted the split-section structure,which can be disassembled and assembled from the radial direction,simplifying the disassembly and assembly process,and reducing the impact on the sealing room. Huanghuazhan rice and Zhengmai 9023 were used to conduct a single factor test to investigate the effects of socket type,rotational speed of drum,vacuum degree and height of seed in hopper on the seeding performance of the metering device evaluated by indexes including qualified rate,miss-seeding rate and reseeding rate. The working parameters was optimized and validated by orthogonal experiment. The results showed that the cone socket was suitable for rice and the ellipse socket was suitable for wheat. The effect of the height of seed in hopper on the performance was slight,while the rotational speed of the drum and the vacuum degree significantly affected the performance. The optimal working parameter combination of rice obtained from the analysis was drum speed 17 r/min,suction negative pressure 4.6 kPa,and seed layer height 40 mm; The optimal working parameter combination of wheat was drum speed 21 r/min,seed suction negative pressure 4.2 kPa,and seed layer height 40 mm. Under this parameter combination,the qualified rate of seeding and miss-seeding rate of rice were 86.81% and 4.61%,respectively; and that of wheat were 81.84% and 7.83 %,respectively. It is consistent with the optimized prediction results,and each index meets the basic requirements for seeding.
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