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陆荣,刘志侠,高连兴,CHEN Charles,BUTTS Christopher Lloyd.美国花生脱壳机研究现状及发展分析[J].华中农业大学学报,2020,39(2):170-180
美国花生脱壳机研究现状及发展分析
Technology status and development analyses of American peanut shellers
投稿时间:2019-07-01  
DOI:
中文关键词:  花生  花生脱壳机  产后加工  手动脱壳  机械脱壳  关键部件  脱壳质量  脱壳效率
英文关键词:peanut  peanut sheller  post harvest processing  hand shelling  mechanical shelling  key parts  shelling quality  shelling efficiency
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0702102);国家自然科学基金项目(51575367;50775151)
作者单位E-mail
陆荣 1.沈阳农业大学工程学院沈阳 110866 2.辽宁生态工程职业学院沈阳 110122 lurong1025@126.com 
刘志侠 沈阳农业大学工程学院沈阳 110866  
高连兴 沈阳农业大学工程学院沈阳 110866 lianxing_gao@126.com 
CHEN Charles 奥本大学农学院奥本 AL 36849  
BUTTS Christopher Lloyd 美国农业部农业研究局国家花生研究实验室道森 GA 31742  
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中文摘要:
      脱壳是花生利用前必经环节,脱壳机是花生产后加工的核心设备,在很大程度上决定了花生的果仁质量和脱壳效率。中国虽然花生产量位居世界第一,且花生脱壳机得到广泛应用,但花生脱壳技术远不及美国,严重制约花生产后加工业的发展。为借鉴美国花生脱壳技术及发展经验,在实地考察基础上,运用社会调查法、文献研究法和经验总结等方法,本文分析了美国花生脱壳机的发展历史、最新进展和技术衍变过程,剖析了美国现代花生脱壳机的脱壳原理、总体构成、脱壳部件结构型式和特点,总结了美国花生脱壳技术研究的基本方法和成功经验。结果显示,美国花生脱壳机研究密切结合生产需要,起步早且不断创新;多滚筒大型脱壳机既可用于榨油和食品加工的花生脱壳,也可用于种子花生脱壳,各滚筒之间独立驱动,转速200~300 r/min;脱壳机构由带有刮板的脱壳打杆和钢制栅片凹板筛构成,对花生荚果进行刮搓脱壳;复式清选装置首先进行气吸除壳、然后进行筛选和二次气吸清选。美国花生脱壳机技术是机械与农艺等多方面融合研究的结果,对中国花生脱壳技术研究及进展具有重要借鉴意义。
英文摘要:
      Shelling is the only important processing step from production to utilization of peanuts. The shelling machine is the most important core equipment of peanut shelling processing operation,which both mainly determines the peanut shelling efficiency and the processing quality such as the degree of loss and damage of peanut kernels. Even though the peanut production ranks first in the world and shelling technology is widely used,China’s peanut shelling technology is far poorer than the United States,which has been seriously restricting the development of peanut food processing industry and the export of peanuts as well as their products in China. In order to explore,analyze and use the experience of the American peanut shelling technology and development for reference,based on onsite observation,public survey of documents and the systematical analysis,the classification and review of the peanut shelling technology of the USA significantly different from China in aspects including the industrialization,and the characteristics of the large scale were conducted. The advanced equipment and well equipped assembling were summarized. The development history and research status of American peanut shellers were analyzed deeply. The scraping shelling principle and relevant sheller structural type and development of shelling parts were dissected. The technical characteristics of low speed,multi roller independent driving and double cleaning device of the latest peanut shelling machine in the United States were pointed out. The studies on shelling factors and the experience in promoting the development of peanut shelling technology of the USA were summed up. It will provide important reference for studying and developing peanut shelling technology in China.
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