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郭瑶,肖求清,曹凑贵,江洋,袁鹏丽,孙自川,刘卿君,汪金平.稻虾共作对稻田杂草群落组成及物种多样性的影响[J].华中农业大学学报,2020,39(2):17-24
稻虾共作对稻田杂草群落组成及物种多样性的影响
Effects of rice crayfish ecosystems on weed community composition and species diversity in paddy fields
投稿时间:2019-07-02  
DOI:
中文关键词:  稻虾共作; 稻田种养; 生态农业; 稻田; 杂草; 群落结构; 生物多样性  绿色防控
英文关键词:rice crayfish co culture  integrated farming of planting and breeding in paddy fields  ecological agriculture  paddy field  weeds  community structure  species diversity  green prevention and control
基金项目:中央高校基本科研业务费专项(2662018YJ024); 国家重点研发计划专项(2018YFD0301304); 湖北省生态循环农业创新体系项目
作者单位E-mail
郭瑶 华中农业大学植物科学技术学院/双水双绿研究院武汉 430070 475219694@qq.com 
肖求清 华中农业大学植物科学技术学院/双水双绿研究院武汉 430070  
曹凑贵 1.华中农业大学植物科学技术学院/双水双绿研究院武汉 430070 2.主要粮食作物产业化湖北省协同创新中心荆州 434025  
江洋 华中农业大学植物科学技术学院/双水双绿研究院武汉 430070  
袁鹏丽 华中农业大学植物科学技术学院/双水双绿研究院武汉 430070  
孙自川 华中农业大学植物科学技术学院/双水双绿研究院武汉 430070  
刘卿君 华中农业大学植物科学技术学院/双水双绿研究院武汉 430070  
汪金平 华中农业大学植物科学技术学院/双水双绿研究院武汉 430070 wangjp@mail.hzau.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      为探究稻虾共作对稻田杂草群落组成及物种多样性的影响,运用植物群落生态学的方法,通过调查区域在1 a(RC1)、2 a(RC2)、4 a(RC4)和9 a(RC9)等4个不同稻虾共作年限稻田和1 a小区控制试验稻田(CK)田面和田埂杂草物种数变化、杂草数量变化以及杂草盖度变化,研究不同稻虾共作年限稻田杂草的群落变化特点及控草效果。结果显示:稻虾共作稻田的杂草生物多样性指标随年限增长表现出先降低后增加的趋势,CK的Simpson指数和Shannon多样性指数杂草优势度显著高于稻虾处理,RC4处理最低。Pielou均匀度指数RC9处理显著高于其他年限稻虾田,但与CK处理无显著差异。随稻虾共作年限的增加,稻田杂草总数表现出先降低后增加的趋势,均显著低于CK处理。不同种杂草的重要值(importance value,I值)随稻虾共作年限增长呈现不同的规律,千金子、稗草、双穗雀稗和飘拂草的I值随年限增加先降低后增加,通泉草、空心莲子草、鳢肠、鸭舌草等的I值在稻虾共作稻田中表现出小于水稻单作稻田并逐年降低的规律。在大田控制试验中,经过1 a稻虾共作模式后,稻田田内和田埂的杂草物种数、杂草个体数和盖度均显著降低。结果表明:短期稻虾共作对稻田杂草的抑制作用明显,长期的稻虾共作会逐步形成新的杂草群落结构,需要采取对应的杂草防控措施。
英文摘要:
      In order to explore the influence of rice crayfish ecosystems on weed in paddy fields,the characteristics of weed community changes and grass control effect in paddy fields with different years of rice crayfish ecosystem were studied with ecological approaches to plant communities. This paper studied the differences of weed diversity between rice monoculture and rice crayfish co culture in 1 year,2 years,4 years and 9 years. Field experiments were conducted to investigate the changes of weed species,weed quantity and weed coverage in fields and ridges after a complete 1 year rice crayfish co culture system. The results showed that the indexes of weed biodiversity in rice crayfish co culture systems had a trend of decreasing first and then increasing with the increase of years. The Simpson index and Shannon diversity index under CK treatment had the highest weed dominance,which was significantly different from rice crayfish treatments. The RC4 treatment had the lowest weed dominance. The evenness index of Pielou treated by RC9 has the highest evenness,which is not significantly different from that of CK but significantly different from that of other treatments. The total number of weeds in the sample plots with different years of rice crayfish co culture system decreased first and then increased with the increase of the number of years,which were significantly lower than those treated with CK. The importance values (I values)of different weeds had different regularities with the increase of rice crayfish co cultivation years. The I values of Leptochloa chinensis,Echinochhloa crausgalli,Paspalum paspaloides and Fimbristylis dichotoma decreased first and then increased with the increase of years. The I values of Mazus japonicus,Alternanthera philoxeroides,Eclipta prostrata and Monochoriav aginalis in rice crayfish co cultivation paddy fields were smaller than those in rice monoculture paddy fields and decreased year by year. After 1 year rice crayfish co culture farming,the number of weed species,weed individuals and weed coverage in the paddy field and the ridge were significantly reduced. The results showed that short term rice crayfish co culture significantly improved the weed control effect. Long term rice crayfish co culture gradually formed a new weed community structure,and corresponding weed control measures need to be taken.
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