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肖文芳,舒彩霞,廖庆喜,廖宜涛,张青松,肖文立,付云开.犁旋组合式稻茬全量还田油菜直播种床整理机设计与试验[J].华中农业大学学报,2019,38(6):-146
犁旋组合式稻茬全量还田油菜直播种床整理机设计与试验
Design and test of tillage machine combined with plough and rotary for managing seedbed before planting rapeseed by burying of rice straw incorporated into soil
投稿时间:2019-02-27  
DOI:
中文关键词:  种床松旋装置  种床带  类深松  旋耕  油菜  联合直播机
英文关键词:seedbed preparing  rice straw returning  plough rotary combination  plough  rotary tillage  buckling soil  rapeseed direct seeding  rice rapeseed rotation  combined tillage equipment
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2018YFD0200901);农业部公益性行业科研专项(201503118 06);湖北省农业科技创新行动项目;国家油菜产业体系专项(CARS-12)
作者单位E-mail
肖文芳 华中农业大学工学院/农业农村部长江中下游农业装备重点实验室武汉 430070 xwfyfd@163.com 
舒彩霞 华中农业大学工学院/农业农村部长江中下游农业装备重点实验室武汉 430070 shucaixia@mail.hzau.edu.cn 
廖庆喜 华中农业大学工学院/农业农村部长江中下游农业装备重点实验室武汉 430070  
廖宜涛 华中农业大学工学院/农业农村部长江中下游农业装备重点实验室武汉 430070  
张青松 华中农业大学工学院/农业农村部长江中下游农业装备重点实验室武汉 430070  
肖文立 华中农业大学工学院/农业农村部长江中下游农业装备重点实验室武汉 430070  
付云开 华中农业大学工学院/农业农村部长江中下游农业装备重点实验室武汉 430070  
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中文摘要:
      针对长江中下游地区稻茬田土壤黏重板结、地表秸秆量大且禁止焚烧导致油菜直播时机具易堵塞缠绕的难题,设计了一种犁翻埋茬、旋耕碎土、侧边作畦开沟的油菜直播种床整理机。该机主要由犁翻部件、旋耕部件及开畦沟部件组成,可实现秸秆全量还田、碎土平整及开畦沟功能;基于土垡运动规律确定了扣垡犁导曲线、直元线角及犁体尾翼长度等关键犁体曲面参数和犁体数量及距离等布局结构参数。田间试验显示:当机组前进速度由3.3 km/h增加至4.2 km/h时,整机牵引阻力增加了23.7%,功耗增加了57.2%。在旋耕深度相同作业条件下,当机组前进速度分别为3.3、4.2 km/h时,由于增加了犁翻部件,整机总功耗相比于单个旋耕机独立作业分别增加12.3%、20.7%,但有效提高了机组的通过性和整地的作业质量。与单个旋耕机相比,在2种工况下,整机的平均碎土率为92.8%,提高了2.6%,耕后地表平整度平均为11 mm,提高了39.0%,秸秆平均埋覆率为92.9%,提高了22.2%。试验表明,设计的整理机各项性能参数均满足油菜种植农艺要求。
英文摘要:
      In the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze river,the soil is sticky and amount of rice straw is large,which will cause machine to be blocked by soil or entangled by straw.In order to solve this problem,a combined tillage machine composed of buckle plough,rotary tillage and parts for furrowing,which can cover the straw with the plough,break soil up with rotary tillage and ditch furrow with the plough at the back,was designed.According to the law of soil movement,the key parameters of plough surface including guide curve,straight element angle,tail length of plough surface,and the structural parameters including number and distance of plough were determined.Results of field test showed that traction resistance of machine increased by 23.7% and the power consumption increased by 57.2% when the working speed increased from 3.3 km/h to 4.2 km/h.Traction resistance and power consumption increased when speed increased.Due to the addition of plough,the total power consumption of machine increased by 12.3% and 20.7% compared with the rotary tillage when the speed of the machine was 3.3 km/h and 4.2 km/h under the same operating depth of rotary tillage.The machine worked better even though the power consumption was increased.Compared with the rotary tillage,the average soil crushing rate of the combined machine,the average surface flatness after tillage,the average straw coverage rate was 92.8%,11 mm,and 92.9%,respectively and increased by 2.6%,39.0%,and 22.2%,respectively.All performance parameters of the machine meet the agronomic requirements of rapeseed sowing.
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