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许炜,孙志贵,田贺培,张运波,卢碧林.播种和施肥方式对直播稻分蘖特性和产量的影响[J].华中农业大学学报,2018,37(3):1-9
播种和施肥方式对直播稻分蘖特性和产量的影响
Effects of sowing and fertilization on tiller characteristics and yield of direct-seeded rice
  
DOI:
中文关键词:  直播水稻  播种方式  施肥方式  分蘖  产量
英文关键词:direct-seeding rice  seeding method  fertilization method  tiller  yield
基金项目:国家重点研发计划专项(2017YFD030140404)
作者单位E-mail
许炜 主要粮食作物产业化湖北省协同创新中心/长江大学农学院,荆州 434025 951256002@qq.com 
孙志贵 主要粮食作物产业化湖北省协同创新中心/长江大学农学院,荆州 434025  
田贺培 主要粮食作物产业化湖北省协同创新中心/长江大学农学院,荆州 434025  
张运波 主要粮食作物产业化湖北省协同创新中心/长江大学农学院,荆州 434025  
卢碧林 主要粮食作物产业化湖北省协同创新中心/长江大学农学院,荆州 434025 blin9921@sina.com 
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中文摘要:
      为研究不同播种和施肥方式下直播水稻分蘖特征和产量状况,以全两优681、荃优华占和黄华占为试验材料,在江汉平原稻麦两熟制耕作制度下,设置2种播种方式(机械直播和人工撒播)和施肥方式(4次施肥和3次施肥),研究了直播稻成蘖和成穗特征及产量表现。结果显示:各处理一次分蘖成蘖主要叶位为1/0至6/0,3/0至6/0叶位的成蘖率较高,二次分蘖叶位为2/1、3/1和2/2,3/1叶位成蘖率最高;2/0到5/0叶位是一次分蘖成穗优势叶位,2/1和3/1是二次分蘖的主要成穗叶位;一、二次分蘖成蘖和成穗率方面,机械直播稻高于人工撒播稻,4次施肥直播稻高于3次施肥直播稻;各处理不同时期干物质积累量和净干物质积累量趋势一致,机械直播稻高于人工撒播稻,4次施肥直播稻高于3次施肥直播稻;分蘖至拔节期各处理叶绿素呈下降趋势,机械直播稻高于人工撒播稻,4次施肥高于3次施肥;机械直播稻和4次施肥直播稻的穗部性状优于人工撒播稻和3次施肥直播稻;从产量及其构成要素来看,各处理产量差异达极显著水平。机械直播稻产量显著高于人工撒播稻,4次施肥的直播稻产量显著高于3次施肥的直播稻,除了有效穗数外,其他构成要素趋势与产量表现基本一致。综上,不同播种和施肥方式下,直播稻分蘖特性存在明显差异,机械直播稻和4次施肥下的直播稻的一、二次分蘖成穗率高,叶片叶绿素含量较高,干物质积累量大,穗部性状占优势,产量高。
英文摘要:
      Three varieties including Quanliangyou 681,Quanyouhuazhan and Huanghuazhan with different methods of seeding and fertilization were used to investigate the tiller characteristics and yield of direct-seeded rice.Results showed that the primary leaf position of emerging tillers was during from 1/0 to 6/0.The rate of emerging tillers is pretty higher when the leaf position is during from 3/0 to 6/0.The secondary tilling position is 2/1,3/1 and 2/2.The emerging rate of secondary tillers is higher in the 3/1.These leaf positions ranged from 2/0 to 5/0,account for the panicle rate of primary tillers.Two leaf positions( 2/1,3/1 ) dominate panicle rate of secondary tillers.The rate of emerging tillers of mechanical seeding rice is higher than that of artificial seeding rice.The panicle rate of mechanical seeding rice is much higher compared with that of artificial seeding rice.The rate of emerging tillers and panicles is of a high level with four times fertilization.At the main growth stage,the dry matter accumulation and net accumulation is higher when rice was seeded mechanically under four times fertilization.From stage of tillering to jointing,the chlorophyll content decreased and was higher in the rice sowed mechanically with four times fertilization.The panicle of mechanical seeding rice had an advantage over the rice seeded artificially.The panicle characteristics of direct-seeded with four times fertilization had a better performance.The difference of yield under various treatments was significant(P<0.01).The yield of mechanical seeding rice was significantly higher than that of artificial seeding rice(P<0.05).The rice yield under four times fertilization was significantly higher than that of direct-seeded rice with 3 times fertilization (P<0.05).The tendency of other yield components is in accordance with yield except for effective panicles.It is indicated that the tiller characteristics with different seeding and fertilization methods differs obviously.The mechanical seeding rice and rice with four times fertilization is useful for panicle rate of emerging tillers,chlorophyll content,dry matter accumulation,panicle traits and yield.
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