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Richard E.Goodman.生物安全:美国转基因作物的评价与管理[J].华中农业大学学报,2014,33(06):
生物安全:美国转基因作物的评价与管理
Biosafety:Evaluation and regulation of genetically modified (GM) crops in the United States
投稿时间: 2014-09-22  
DOI:
中文关键词:  转基因作物  食品安全评审  致敏性  毒性
英文关键词:genetically modified crops  food safety assessment  allergenicity  toxicity
基金项目:食物过敏研究和资源计划 翻 译: 吴 昊 胡 斌 孟盼盼 梁力文 校 正: 陈 浩 华中农业大学作物遗传改良国家重点实验室
作者单位E-mail
Richard E.Goodman 美国内布拉斯加-林肯大学食品科学与技术系143食品工业综合区 内布拉斯加州林肯 68583-0955 E-mail: rgoodman2@unl.edu; Tel: +1(402) 472-0452; Fax: +1(402) 472-0693 
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中文摘要:
      本篇综述侧重于介绍美国本土的转基因作物安全评价的过程和进展。回顾了安全评价程序的建立过程,从1975年阿西洛马(Asilomar)会议上关于重组DNA技术的问题,自1984-1994年间第一例转基因作物进行田间试验到评估作为食物和饲料商业化生产时,美国政府、学术界和产业界科学家之间的讨论。此外,一同回顾国际上的指南与美国的系统。整体过程还要考虑人类接触基因来源和表达蛋白是否有安全的或不安全的历史。食用蛋白安全性首要考虑因素为某些消费者是否对其过敏或者拥有转基因编码蛋白的IgE抗体,或者转基因食品会诱发乳糜泻,同时考虑表达蛋白的潜在毒性效果和对人或动物营养的影响。在美国,该过程与国际食品法典委员会的建议是一致的,它是基于科学的并应用合理的假设。迄今为止,没有证据证明在美国获得批准的转基因作物危害人或动物的健康。评价要考虑遗传和环境上的变化对植物新品种产物的影响,并坚持转基因植物食品和非转基因相似物种同样安全的评价原则。
英文摘要:
      This review of the safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) crops is focused primarily on the process and progress in the United States (US). It reviews the development of the safety evaluation process from the Asilomar conference in 1975 considering issues relevant to recombinant DNA technology,to discussions between the US government,academic and industrial scientists between 1984 and 1994 when the first GM crops were being field tested and evaluated commercial release for food and feed production. International guidelines were also reviewed for consistency with the US system. The overall process includes consideration of information relating to history of safe or unsafe human and exposure to the gene source and expressed proteins. The primary considerations of safety for dietary proteins are whether or not some consumers are sensitized and have IgE antibodies against the protein encoded by the transgene or whether the transgene represents a risk of eliciting celiac disease. The process considers potential toxic effects of expressed proteins as well as potential impacts on human and animal nutrition. The process in the US is consistent with Codex Alimentarius recommendations. It follows a science based process based on justifiable hypotheses. To date there is no evidence that GM crops approved in the US have harmed human or animal consumers. The evaluation takes into account genetic and environmental variation in products produced by plant varieties and is intended to maintain the standard that foods developed from GM plants are intended to be as safe as non-GM genetically similar varieties.
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