国家重点研发计划 ，项目编号 2019YFD1002300
猕猴桃果实软腐病是我国猕猴桃采后贮运期间和销售过程中危害最为严重的病害,给生产带来巨大损失。本文依据传统真菌形态学观察法和rDNA-ITS序列分析技术对发病猕猴桃果实中的致病菌进行病原的分离鉴定,并研究香芹酚对分离得到的猕猴桃软腐病菌的控制效果。结果表明,引起猕猴桃采后果实软腐病的主要致病菌为葡萄座腔菌(Botryosphaeria dothidea)与拟茎点霉菌(Phomopsis vaccinii),其次为灰葡萄孢菌(Botrytis cinerea)、层出镰刀菌(Fusarium proliferatum)和链格孢菌(Alternaria alternata)。香芹酚对猕猴桃软腐病菌表现出良好的抑菌活性,其中对主要致病菌葡萄座腔菌和拟茎点霉菌的抑制作用尤为显著,半抑制浓度(EC50)分别为12.57、9.09μL/L。同时,香芹酚有效控制模拟销售环境下猕猴桃果实软腐病的发生,放置第8d时处理组发病率仅为对照果实的50.17%,且对猕猴桃果实的品质指标影响不显著(P>0.05),因此,香芹酚在控制猕猴桃果实采后软腐病方面具有潜在的应用价值。
The kiwifruits soft rot is the most serious disease during the storage and transportation of kiwifruits, which causing great economic losses. In this study, the pathogenic fungus causing kiwifruit soft rots were isolated and identified by examining the morphological and microscopic characteristics, combined with the results of pathogenicity testing and ITS (internal transcribed spacer) sequencing, and the inhibitory effect of carvacrol on kiwifruits soft rot was further evaulated. Two species, Botryosphaeria dothidea and Phomopsis vaccinii, were identified as the main pathogens causing kiwifruit postharvest soft rots, the other three species followed by Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium proliferatum and Alternaria alternata. Carvacrol had significant antifungal activity against eight soft rot pathogens,especially for B. dothidea and Phomopsis sp.,which half effective concentration (EC50) were 12.57 and 9.09 μL / L, respectively. Simultaneously, carvacrol effectively reduced the incidence of soft rot in kiwifruit under simulatedsales environment, which was only 50.17% compared with the control group, and had no significant effect on fruit quality(P > 0.05). Therefore, carvacrol has great potential to control soft rot of postharvest kiwifruit.