Science and technology is the support of industrial development,and solving the problems faced by industrial development has always been the purpose of scientific research on potato. Only after the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty monarchy,China began systematic scientific researches on potato. So far it has only a history of more than a hundred years. Magnificently,each stage has its outstanding goals and remarkable achievements. The variety screening and hybrid breeding started in the 1930s laid the foundation for the first variety renewal in the 1950s,with a significant increase of yield. Continuous support by the national potato science and technology projects during the "Sixth Five-Year Plan" to "Ninth Five-Year Plan" in China encouraged a systematic research on breeding,cultivation zoning,germplasm evaluation and seed potato propagation which accelerated a rapid development of the industry,so that China has become the largest potato producer in the world. The application and applied basic research since the new century has provided a strong support for improving quality and efficiency of potato industry. In particular,the studies on genetic regulation of potato traits,which is at the forefront of the disciplines,have enhanced the potential of technological innovation and competition in science and technology,and will further promote the strategic position of the potato in ensuring national food security and meeting the needs of healthy life.