国家重点研发计划专项（2018YFD0301304）; 中央高校基本科研业务费专项（2662019QD049）; 湖北省农业科技创新中心创新团队项目
为探究稻虾共作系统中不同秸秆还田与投食处理下水稻生长发育特征、光合变化规律及氮素养分吸收状况，以秸秆不还田不投食（NS+NF）为对照，研究秸秆还田（S：秸秆还田量为12 200 kg/hm2；NS：秸秆残茬7 200 kg/hm2）和投食（F：投食量为1 600 kg/hm2；NF：投食量为0）不同处理在水稻生育中后期生长发育特征、叶片光合特征、群体冠层结构、氮素利用效率与产量的变化。结果显示：S+F能显著增加水稻的产量、有效穗数、结实率和每穂粒数，显著提高成熟期水稻植株氮含量；NS+F处理实际产量最高，为9.34 t/hm2，分别高出其他处理3.43%~11.72%；S处理主要在水稻生育后期起作用，可延缓水稻叶片衰老，降低成熟期根系伤流强度降幅；F处理可增加水稻的分蘖数，促进分蘖稳定，显著降低了水稻的蒸腾速率，增加了水稻成熟期干物质的积累量；NS处理能够显著增加水稻光合速率和蒸腾速率。秸秆还田和投食处理各有千秋，实际农事操作中，当秸秆还田量比较大时，可以适当投喂小龙虾饲料以补充氮素供微生物分解秸秆和植株生长所用。
In order to explore characteristics of rice growth and development,photosynthetic change rules and nitrogen nutrient absorption in the ricecrayfish system under different straw returning and feeding treatment,7 200 kg/hm2 straw returning amount and no feeding (NS+NF,CK) and treatments of 12 200 kg/hm 2 straw returning amount (S) and 1 600 kg/hm2 feeding amount (F) was used to study changes of characteristics of rice growth and development,leaf photosynthetic,population canopy structure,nitrogen utilization efficiency and yield at middle and late growth stage of rice. The results showed that S+F significantly increased the yield,and the number of effective panicle,the seedsetting rate and the number of grains per tassel. The nitrogen content in rice mature plants was also significantly increased. The actual yield of NS+F treatment was 9.34 t/hm2,being the highest and 3.43%11.72% higher than that of other treatment. S treatment was mainly effective in the late growth stage of rice,which delayed the senescence of rice leaves and reduced the decrease of the intensity of root wound flow in the mature stage. F treatment increased the tiller number of rice,promoted tiller stability,significantly reduced the transpiration rate of rice,and increased the accumulation of dry matter in the mature stage of rice. NS treatment significantly increased the photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of rice. Straw returning to the field and feeding treatment has its own advantages. In farming practice,when the amount of straw returned to the field is relatively large,appropriate feeding can supplement nitrogen for microbial decomposition of straw and plant growth.