以鲢脊骨为原料，采用高温蒸煮、酶解、真空浓缩、灌装、灭菌等工序制备鲢鱼骨汤，并研究了4种蛋白酶（中性蛋白酶、碱性蛋白酶、风味蛋白酶、木瓜蛋白酶）对鱼骨汤的氮收率、基本组成、蛋白肽含量、外观、色度和滋味特性的影响。结果表明，与空白样品（未加酶）相比，酶解制备鱼骨汤的氮收率、游离氨基酸含量、钙含量和分子质量小于3 ku的蛋白肽含量显著增加（P＜0.05），其中采用风味蛋白酶制备鱼骨汤的这4项指标最高，分别比空白样品（未加酶）增加了46.61%、3 478.82%、233.40%和56.25%。外观与色度结果表明，风味蛋白酶制备鱼骨汤颜色为深黄色，b*值最大（3.24），其次为其他3种蛋白酶制备的鱼骨汤（1.72~2.86），空白样品（未加酶）的最低（-1.78）。电子舌结果表明，风味蛋白酶制备的鱼骨汤鲜味最强，苦味最弱。 综上所述，风味蛋白酶制备的鲢鱼骨汤的营养、外观和滋味品质最佳。
Fish bone soup was made from silver carp backbone sequentially by hightemperature cooking,enzymatic hydrolysis,vacuum concentration,filling and sterilization. Effects of protease type (neutral protease,alkaline protease,flavor protease and papain) on nitrogen yield,basic composition,peptide content,color,appearance and taste characteristics of the fish bone soup were investigated by atomic absorption spectrophotometer,colorimeter and Enose device,etc. The results showed that,the nitrogen yield,free amino acid content,calcium content and peptide (＜3 ku) content of fish bone soup prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis were significantly higher than those of the blank sample (without enzyme) (P＜0.05). The four indicators of the fish bone soup prepared by flavor protease were the highest,which increased by 46.61%,3 478.88%,233.40% and 56.25%,respectively,compared with the blank sample. The fish bone soup prepared by the flavor protease was deep yellow. Color parameter of b* value was the highest for the fish bone soup prepared by flavor protease (3.24),followed by the samples treated by the other three proteases (2.861.72),and then the blank sample. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that there were significant differences in the taste characteristics of the five fish bone soups. The fish bone soup prepared by the flavor protease had the strongest umami taste and the weakest bitter taste. Overall,the fish bone soup prepared by the flavor protease has the best nutrition,appearance and taste quality.