农机服务、农村劳动力结构变化与中国粮食生产技术效率
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中国农业大学

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国家留学基金委“国家建设高水平大学公派研究生项目”(201906350142);国家社会科学基金项目“粮食应急储备网络运作机理与模型优化研究”(14BGL062)。


Mechanization Services, Rural Labor Structure Change and Technical Efficiency in China’s Food Crop Production
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China Agricultural University

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    摘要:

    农业机械化服务和农村劳动力结构变化对粮食生产效率的影响机制一直是学术界关注的热点问题之一。基于中国劳动力动态调查(CLDS)2014和2016年的混合截面数据,运用超越对数SFA方法估计粮食生产技术效率,并构建中介效应模型,对农机服务、农村劳动力结构变化和技术效率三者的互动逻辑和因果关系进行实证分析。研究发现:(1)农机服务可以显著提升粮食生产技术效率;农村劳动力流失和劳动力向工业部门转移制约粮食生产效率提升,劳动力向服务业部门转移对技术效率存在显著正向效应,但未发现女性化对粮食生产效率的负向效应。(2)农机服务在劳动力结构变化影响技术效率过程中发挥中介效应。农村劳动力流失、女性化、向工业和服务业部门转移,促进农机服务使用,提升粮食生产技术效率。(3)劳动力向工业部门转移在农机服务影响技术效率过程中发挥中介效应。农机服务的使用,促进农村劳动力向工业部门转移,造成技术效率损失;农机服务的使用,导致农村劳动力流失、女性化程度提高、加速劳动力向服务业转移,但三者对技术效率的中介效应并不显著。因此,农机服务是提高农业生产效率的重要抓手,但是需要处理好农村劳动力结构变化可能为粮食生产带来的负向效应。

    Abstract:

    The relationship among mechanization services, labor structure change and farm efficiency remains one of the most persistent debates in the agricultural production field. Using the farm level pooled cross-section data from China Labor-force Dynamics Survey (CLDS) in 2014 and 2016, we apply a translog Stochastic Frontier Model to estimate the technical efficiency (TE) in food crop production and construct a mediation model to analyze the causal relationship among mechanization services, rural labor structure change and technical efficiency. We show that (i) mechanization services and labor transferring to service sector have significant positive effects on TE, while labor loss in agriculture and labor transferring to industry sector have negative effects on TE. No evidence was found that the feminizing of labor have negative impact on TE. (ii) mechanization service has a significant mediation effect on the impact of labor structure on TE. Labor loss in agriculture, feminizing of labor, labor force transferring to industry and service sector have positive effects on mechanization services, which improved the TE. (iii) the use of mechanization service leads to labor loss, feminizing, labor transferring to industry and service sector. However, only labor transferring to industry sector has a significant mediation effect on the positive effects of mechanization service on TE. The results suggest that mechanization services could lift the technical efficiency, but it is necessary to deal with negative mediated effects of labor structure change on farm efficiency in food crops production.

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  • 收稿日期:2020-07-20
  • 最后修改日期:2020-09-05
  • 录用日期:2020-09-07
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