贫困户需要交认知税吗? ——来自G省贫困户思维模式的调查
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1.广州大学;2.广州大学公共管理学院

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国家社科基金一般项目“精准扶贫与贫困户的社会适应研究”(项目编号:18BSH048);广州市社科规划课题智库项目“面向区块链技术的相对贫困治理研究”(2020GZZK05)。


Do poor households need to pay cognitive tax? ——A survey of the thinking patterns of poor households in Province G
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GUANGZHOU UNIVERSITY

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    摘要:

    “认知税”实际上是一种隐喻,用以表述穷人受贫困情境的影响而在决策过程中所产生的短视化行为、被蒙昧的渴望和被错失的良机,以及缺乏物质条件、社会支持和个人能力而消耗的额外认知资源。在此背景下,本文利用G省的实证调研数据,检验“认知税”在中国精准扶贫场域的应用,发现贫困情景会导致思维认知短缺和僵化,这样的思维认知尤其是脱贫思维认知和投资思维认知,与贫困户文化水平、健康状况、脱贫心理、语言技巧与行为选择是明显的负相关关系。同时,短缺的思维认知虽然会对贫困户的文化、身体、心理、语言和行为都产生影响,但最关键的是影响贫困户的心理、语言与行为,进而使其产生依赖心理,引发持续贫困。进一步考察发现,“认知税”引发持续贫困的作用机理在于会导致穷人过度关注稀缺资源,产生注意力偏向,对生活缺乏信心与激情;造成贫困户的认知负荷,使其错失脱贫致富良机;教育重视不足,引发贫困代际传递。简言之,本文的研究,一方面证实了贫困情景导致认知负荷与认知能力下降的“认知税”在中国扶贫领域应用的适用性,另一方面又结合中国实际,对“认知税”的本土化和中国化进行了探讨。由此,丰富贫困户的认知资源,是摆脱贫困的首要选择。

    Abstract:

    "Cognitive tax" is actually a metaphor used to express the short-sighted behaviors, ignorant desires and missed opportunities in the decision-making process of the poor affected by poverty, and the lack of material conditions and social support. And additional cognitive resources consumed by personal abilities. In this context, this paper uses the empirical research data of Province G to test the application of "cognitive tax" in China's precision poverty alleviation field, and finds that poverty scenarios will lead to a shortage and rigidity of thinking cognition, such thinking cognition, especially thinking out of poverty Cognition and investment thinking cognition are obviously negatively correlated with poor households' education level, health status, poverty alleviation psychology, language skills and behavior choices. At the same time, although the shortage of thinking and cognition will affect the culture, body, psychology, language and behavior of the poor households, the most important thing is to affect the psychology, language and behavior of the poor households, which in turn makes them dependent on the psychology and triggers continued poor. Further investigation revealed that the mechanism of the persistent poverty caused by the "cognitive tax" is that it will cause the poor to pay too much attention to scarce resources, produce attentional bias, and lack confidence and passion for life; it will cause the cognitive load of poor households and make them miss the opportunity to get rich out of poverty. ; Insufficient attention to education, triggering intergenerational transmission of poverty. In short, the research in this paper confirms the applicability of the application of the “cognitive tax” in cognitive poverty and cognitive decline in poverty alleviation in China in the poverty alleviation field. The localization and localization of "tax" were discussed. Therefore, enriching the cognitive resources of poor households is the primary choice to get rid of poverty.

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  • 收稿日期:2020-04-25
  • 最后修改日期:2020-06-08
  • 录用日期:2020-06-09
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