With the change of agricultural endowment and induced technological progress in China, farm household transform inputs structure timely, which affect the growth of labor productivity. This paper constructs elastic coefficient of input factor allocation ratio affecting labor productivity and examines the effect of rural labor transfer on labor productivity of maize, based on the expanded cobb-douglas production function. The results show that: (1) factor allocation structure adjustment enhances maize’s labor productivity because technical equipment allocated to unit labor has been improved significantly, through reducing the labor and increasing fertilizer and machinery. (2) At the national level, the elasticity of fertilizer-labor ratio affecting on maize’s labor productivity is the most significant positive effect, as well as the elasticity of seed-labor ratio and machinery-labor ratio. (3) At the regional level, the elasticity of fertilizer-labor ratio, seed-labor ratio, machinery-labor ratio and pesticide-labor ratio are significantly positive in North China. The elasticity of pesticide-labor ratio is negative in Northeast China and the elasticity of machinery-labor ratio isn’t significant in Southwest China. (4) Compared with labor-saving technology, land-saving technology appears more significant effect on maize’s labor productivity. The policy implication is that improvement the quality of input factors and optimization the structure of factor allocation, as well as continuing to promote rural labor force transfer to nonagricultural sector. Especially, it emphasizes the matching of the inputs factor, the integration of technical equipment and promoting agricultural socialized technical service.