要素配置调整对我国粮食劳动生产率的影响:来自玉米的实证
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1.贵州大学经济学院;2.贵州大学

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国家自然科学基金项目(面上项目,重点项目,重大项目)


Impact of factor allocation adjustment on grain labor productivity in China: evidence from maize
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Guizhou University

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    摘要:

    伴随农业禀赋变化和诱致性技术变迁,农户对生产要素投入结构作适应性调整,进而影响劳动生产率增长。基于扩展的C-D函数,构建投入要素配置比例对劳动生产率影响的弹性系数,并以玉米为例,实证检验了要素投入配置变化对我国粮食劳动生产率的影响。研究表明:(1)减少劳动投入,增加化肥、机械等投入,配置在单位劳动上的物质技术装备得到明显改善,要素配置比例调整有效促进玉米劳动生产率的提升。(2)在全国层面,化肥-劳动配比弹性系数显著为正,作用最明显;改善种子-劳动配比、机械-劳动配比也可以显著提升玉米劳动生产率。(3)在产区层面,华北产区的化肥、种子、机械、农药四种要素与劳动的配比弹性系数都显著为正;东北产区农药-劳动配比弹性系数为负;西南产区机械-劳动配比影响不显著。(4)与劳动节约型要素相比,土地节约型要素与劳动配比改善对玉米劳动生产率的影响更为显著,对全国和产区两个层面都适用。本文的政策含义在于,应坚定不移地推进劳动力转移就业,同时要提升农业要素质量和利用效率,优化要素配置结构,尤其要注重要素之间的匹配、技术装备的集成和农业社会化服务发展。

    Abstract:

    With the change of agricultural endowment and induced technological progress in China, farm household transform inputs structure timely, which affect the growth of labor productivity. This paper constructs elastic coefficient of input factor allocation ratio affecting labor productivity and examines the effect of rural labor transfer on labor productivity of maize, based on the expanded cobb-douglas production function. The results show that: (1) factor allocation structure adjustment enhances maize’s labor productivity because technical equipment allocated to unit labor has been improved significantly, through reducing the labor and increasing fertilizer and machinery. (2) At the national level, the elasticity of fertilizer-labor ratio affecting on maize’s labor productivity is the most significant positive effect, as well as the elasticity of seed-labor ratio and machinery-labor ratio. (3) At the regional level, the elasticity of fertilizer-labor ratio, seed-labor ratio, machinery-labor ratio and pesticide-labor ratio are significantly positive in North China. The elasticity of pesticide-labor ratio is negative in Northeast China and the elasticity of machinery-labor ratio isn’t significant in Southwest China. (4) Compared with labor-saving technology, land-saving technology appears more significant effect on maize’s labor productivity. The policy implication is that improvement the quality of input factors and optimization the structure of factor allocation, as well as continuing to promote rural labor force transfer to nonagricultural sector. Especially, it emphasizes the matching of the inputs factor, the integration of technical equipment and promoting agricultural socialized technical service.

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  • 收稿日期:2020-04-09
  • 最后修改日期:2020-06-09
  • 录用日期:2020-07-20
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