从经验积累到分工经济:农业报酬递增的演变逻辑
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1.华南农业大学 经济管理学院;2.华南农业大学 国家农业制度与发展研究院

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国家社会科学基金重大项目(19ZDA115)、国家自然科学基金政策研究重点支持项目(71742003)


From Experience Accumulation to Division of Labor: Evolutionary Logic of Increasing Return to Scale in Agriculture
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1.South China Agricultural University College of Economics and Management;2.South China Agricultural University National School of Agricultural Institution and Development

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    摘要:

    传统农业经济理论认为,农业具有规模报酬不变的特征,这不仅与主流经济学的内生技术进步和“干中学”等理论概念不符,也无法解释传统小农社会的“精耕细作”和现代农业分工带来的农业增长。本文通过拓展Arrow和杨小凯构建的“干中学”理论模型,分析了无外生技术进步情形下,传统小农社会和农业分工阶段的农户是如何通过调整农业种植结构和要素配置结构,实现“干中学”过程中的农业规模报酬递增的。结果表明:(1)当不存在农业劳动力刚性约束时,农户在租入农地或提高农作物种植频率以充分利用农业劳动力的过程中,“干中学”会改善劳动生产效率并提高农业规模报酬;(2)进入农业劳动力非农转移加速阶段,农业劳动力刚性约束会使得农业规模报酬从“干中学”诱致的递增阶段进入递减阶段;(3)为克服农业劳动力的刚性约束,农户会自发参与农业分工,由此加速农业“干中学”和提高农业专业化程度,并诱致农业规模报酬递增。本文表明,农业并不是一个低效率的被动的产业。

    Abstract:

    Traditional theories in agricultural economics generally assume there is a constant return to scale in agriculture. Such an assumption is not only inconsistent with the concept of the endogenous technical change and the “learn by doing” models in neoclassical economics, but also can’t explain the agricultural growth caused by the intensive and meticulous farming practices in traditional peasant economy and the division of labor in modern agriculture. By expanding the “learn by doing” models developed by Arrow (1962) and Yang and Ng (1993), we analyzes how farmers can exercise their “learning by doing” to achieving the increasing return to scale by adjusting the planting structure and agricultural inputs in a traditional peasant economy and an era of agricultural division of labor without account of external technical change. The analytical results indicate that (1) without rigid constraint in agricultural labor, the “learning by doing” will improve labor productivity and increase return to scale through the expansion in the farming scale by renting more farmland or the increases in cropping index to fully use the excessive agricultural labor; (2) with rigid constraint in agricultural labor due to the labor migration from agricultural to non-agricultural sectors, the return to scale in agriculture can become decreasing after the increase induced by the learning by doing; (3) the division of labor in agriculture helps overcome the rigid constraint of agricultural labor and stimulates labor specialization and “learning by doing” that lead to the increasing return to scale in agriculture. The findings show that agriculture has never been a passive industry with low efficiency, but evolving industry with constant pursue of efficiency and growth.

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  • 收稿日期:2020-01-15
  • 最后修改日期:2020-03-23
  • 录用日期:2020-05-03
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