知识产权视角下农民品种保护的规范构造
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作者单位:

1.华中农业大学 文法学院;2.首都经济贸易大学

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中图分类号:

D923.42;F124.3

基金项目:

国家社会科学基金项目“植物新品种知识产权保护困境与制度创新研究”(16BFX168)


Normative Structure of Protection of Farmers’ Varieties from the Perspective of Intellectual Property
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Affiliation:

1.Huazhong Agricultural University;2.Capital University of Economics and Business

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    摘要:

    农民品种是由一定区域的农民以集体创新的方式,经过长期培育并被证明具有特殊品性的品种,具有群体性、地域性和传承性。农民品种的价值和所要保护的核心是其所包含的遗传信息,适合用知识产权制度对其加以保护,但与保护私人创新成果的知识产权制度应有所差异。农民品种的取得应符合较低要求的可识别性,且需经过注册登记程序。农民品种的保护模式主要包括特别权形式的积极性保护与防御性保护。在特别权保护下,农民品种权权利主体分两个层次,即静态的权利归属于国家,动态的权利由特定社区农民集体行使。具有集体属性的农民品种权不得转让,但权利人享有基于许可的知情同意权和惠益分享权;同时应设置合理使用、强制许可及保护期限等限制制度,以实现权益平衡,促进植物育种领域的创新。

    Abstract:

    Farmers’ varieties are cultivated by farmers through collective innovation in certain areas for long time, and are proved to be of special quality, they have collective, territorial and inherited attributes. The value of farmers’ varieties and the core of their protection are genetic information they contain. They are suitable for protection by intellectual property systems, but they should be different from intellectual property systems of protecting private innovation. The acquisition of farmers’ varieties should meet condition of identifiability in less demanding, and go through the registration process. The protection modes of farmers’ varieties mainly include positive protection in form of sui generis right and defensive protection. Under protection of sui generis right, subject of farmers’ varieties right is divided into two levels, static right of farmers’ varieties belongs to the state, dynamic right of farmers’ varieties should exercised by the farmer collective of specific community. Farmers’ varieties right with collective attributes shall not be transferable. But obligee could enjoy the rights of informed consent and benefit sharing based on the permission. Some restricted systems should be set up at the same time, such as rational use, compulsory license and protection time limits, in order to achieve the balance of interests, and promote innovations in plant breeding.

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历史
  • 收稿日期:2019-09-11
  • 最后修改日期:2020-03-23
  • 录用日期:2020-05-08
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