汉江干流水生生物资源现状及变化趋势
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1.华中农业大学水产学院;2.中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所

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农业财政专项“长江渔业资源与环境调查”(CJDC-2017-18);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助项目(2662020SCPY001)


Current situation and changing trend of aquatic organisms resources in the main stream of Hanjiang River
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    摘要:

    2017~2020年间,对汉江干流鱼类、浮游生物和水生高等维管束植物等生物资源进行了调查分析。结果表明:共采集鱼类98种,其中经济鱼类以鲤、鲫、鲢、鳙、草鱼等为主;共镜检浮游植物7门71属116种,其中绿藻门种类最多,共46种;优势种12种,以硅藻门为主。浮游动物共镜检出55属86种,其中轮虫最多,共48种;优势种8种,以原生动物为主。水生高等维管束植物16科24属29种,呈明显的地带性特征。与过去监测数据相比,汉江干流鱼类种类下降、渔获物小型化趋势明显,渔业资源呈衰退趋势;浮游植物种类、密度和生物量呈上升趋势;浮游动物种类减少,但密度和生物量呈上升趋势;水生高等维管束植物种类呈下降趋势。上述变化与水利工程建设、水文情势变化和水体富营养化进程加快等因素相关,建议加大汉江渔业资源与环境的保护力度。

    Abstract:

    From 2017 to 2020, the biological resources of fish, plankton and aquatic macrophytes in the mainstream of Hanjiang River were investigated and analyzed. The results showed that: a total of 98 species of fish were collected, among which the economic fish were mainly carp, crucian carp, silver carp, bighead carp, grass carp, etc.; a total of 116 species of phytoplankton belonging to 71 genera, 7 phyla, among which 46 species were Chlorophyta, and 12 dominant species were bacillariophyta. 86 species of zooplankton belonging to 55 genera were detected, among which 48 species were rotifers, and 8 species were dominant, mainly protozoa. There are 29 species of aquatic macrophytes belonging to 24 genera and 16 families. Compared with the monitoring data in the past, the fish species in the main stream of Hanjiang River decreased, the catch miniaturized obviously, and the fishery resources declined; the species, density and biomass of phytoplankton increased; the species of zooplankton decreased, but the density and biomass increased; the species of aquatic macrophytes decreased. The above changes are related to the construction of water conservancy projects, the change of hydrological regime and the acceleration of water eutrophication. It is suggested to strengthen the protection of fishery resources and environment in Hanjiang River.

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  • 收稿日期:2021-03-22
  • 最后修改日期:2021-07-05
  • 录用日期:2021-07-23
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