1. 国家重点研发计划“蓝色粮仓科技创新”专项（2020YFD0900303）; 2.中央高校基本科研业务费专项(2662018YJ020); 3. 湖北省农业科技创新中心项目(2019-620-000-001-33) 4. 潜江市国家现代农业产业园“小龙虾优势品系苗种繁育关键技术研究项目”
1.华中农业大学;2.Department of Aquatic Animal Medicine,College of Fisheries,Huazhong Agricultural University/Engineering Technology Research Center for Aquatic Animal Diseases Control and Prevention
1.National Key Research and Development Program of China (2020YFD0900303); 2.Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2662018YJ020); 3. Hubei Agricultural Sciences And Technology Innovation Center (2019-620-000-001-33); 4. Qianjiang National Modern Agricultural Industrial Park "Research Project on Key Technology of Crayfish Seedling Breeding of Dominant Strains"
为确定克氏原螯虾（Procambarus clarkii）胚胎和幼体发育的最佳温度，设置19、22、25、28 ℃ 4个温度，观察各温度条件下克氏原螯虾胚胎和幼体发育过程，记录不同温度下胚胎和幼体阶段的成活率、发育速率、生物学零度和有效积温。结果显示：温度对克氏原螯虾胚胎孵化率、孵化时间及幼体发育速率和成活率均有显著影响（P < 0.05），在试验温度（19~28 ℃）范围内，胚胎发育进程随温度升高而加快，19 ℃和28 ℃条件下胚胎孵化时间分别为（622.67±6.02）h和（349.67±4.63）h；胚胎孵化率随温度升高呈现“先升后降”的趋势，在22 ℃时孵化率最高，为91.03%±2.97%，28 ℃时孵化率最低，仅为40.53%±4.97%；幼体发育时间随温度升高而减少，19 ℃和28 ℃条件下幼体阶段发育所需时间分别为（304.00±10.73）h和（194.00±9.03）h；幼体成活率随温度升高呈现“先升后降”的趋势，水温22 ℃时，成活率最高为94.37%±1.60%，水温28 ℃时，成活率最低为82.67%±1.51%。采用Sanderson-Pearis公式，计算得出克氏原螯虾胚胎和幼体发育的生物学零度分别为7.32 ℃和3.29 ℃。根据所建立的胚胎和幼体发育的温度依赖性发育模型推算出，克氏原螯虾胚胎和幼体发育的最适温度分别为22.06 ℃和22.78 ℃。综合各项指标，我们建议克氏原螯虾人工繁育过程中胚胎和幼体发育的温度范围为22~25 ℃。
To determine the optimal temperature of embryonic and larval development of Procambarus clarkii, we observe the embryonic and larval development process, and record the survival rate, development time, biological zero degree and effective accumulated temperature at four temperatures (19℃, 22℃, 25℃ and 28℃). The results showed that hatching time, hatching rate and larval development of P. clarkii were significantly affected by temperature (P < 0.05). The embryonic development was accelerated with the temperature increasing within the experimental temperature range (19 ~ 28℃), and the development time at 19℃ was (622.67 ± 6.02) h post spawning, while it was only (349.67 ± 4.63) h at 28℃. The embryonic hatching rate firstly increased and then decreased, the highest (91.03% ± 2.97%) and lowest (40.53% ± 4.97%) hatching rate values were obtained at 22℃ and 28℃. The larval development time decreased with the increase of temperature, and the development time at 19℃ was (304.00 ± 10.73) h, while it was only (194.00 ± 9.03) h at 28℃. The larval survival rate firstly increased and then decreased, the highest (94.37% ± 1.60%) and lowest (82.67% ± 1.51%) survival rate values were obtained at 22℃ and 28℃, respectively. We calculated the biological zero of embryonic and larval development were 7.32℃ and 3.29℃ using the Sanderson-Pearis formul. We further built a temperature-dependent developmental model for P. clarkii embryos and larvae. According to the curve fitting equation, the embryonic and larval development of optimal temperature were 22.06℃ and 22.78℃. Therefore, we suggested that the optimal temperature range of embryonic and larval development was 22 ~ 25℃.