播期及秧龄对湖北二季晚粳产量和品质的影响
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华中农业大学

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国家重点研发计划专项


Effects of sowing dates and seedling ages on the yield and quality of two-season late japonica rice in Hubei Province
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    摘要:

    为建立二季晚粳高产优质栽培技术,推动湖北省“早籼-晚粳”种植模式的发展,以鄂粳403为材料,在2个播期(6月25日和7月2日)和4种秧龄(15d、20d、25d和30d)组合下研究播期和秧龄对其产量和品质的影响,并分析了灌浆结实期气温与二季晚粳稻米品质形成的关系。结果表明:随着播期的推迟和秧龄的延长,二季晚粳抽穗时间推迟,灌浆结实期和全生育期延长,但本田营养生长期缩短。在正常播期(6月25日)下随着秧龄延长经济产量呈先升后降趋势,以20d秧龄最高,长秧龄导致显著减产;迟播显著降低二季晚粳产量,但不同秧龄间产量差异不显著。迟播和长秧龄降低稻米加工品质,但可改善外观品质。不同播期和秧龄处理的稻米糊化温度差异较小。相同播期的稻米峰值黏度和崩解值以及正常播期下的最终黏度均随秧龄的延长而呈先升后降趋势,以20d秧龄最高;迟播则导致稻米峰值黏度、最终黏度和崩解值降低,蒸煮食味品质下降。因此,本地区二季晚粳在正常播期播种、秧龄为20d时可获得较好的综合品质。在抽穗较迟时,灌浆结实期低温可能成为二季晚粳加工品质和蒸煮食味品质形成的限制因素。

    Abstract:

    A field experiment following the randomized complete block (RCB) design and using Ejing 403 as material was conducted at 2 sowing dates (June 25 and July 2, respectively) and 4 seedling ages (15d, 20d, 25d and 30d, respectively) to test the effects of sowing dates and seedling ages on the yield and quality of two-season late japonica rice. The relationships of rice quality formation with the air temperature during the grain filling were also analyzed. The main purpose of this study was to establish the high- yield and high- quality cultivation techniques for the two-season late japonica rice and promote the development of “early indica- late japonica” plantation pattern in Hubei Province. The results showed that, the heading time delayed and the grain filling duration and the whole growth period prolonged, but the vegetative period in the field shortened along with the delaying sowing and prolonging seedling age. The economic yield increased at first and then decreased with the prolonging seedling age when sown on June 25, a local regular sowing date for the two-season late rice. The highest yield was attained at 20 days of seedling age and long seedling ages led to significant yield loss. Delaying sowing resulted in a significantly lower yield compared to the regular sowing time, but no significant difference in yield was detected among different seedling ages at the delaying sowing date. Both delaying sowing and prolonging seedling age lowered the grinding quality but improved the appearance quality of two-season late japonica rice. The pasting temperature of rice flour did not change much among the treatments of different sowing dates and seedling ages. However, the peak viscosity and breakdown values of rice flour at the same sowing date, as well as the final viscosity at the regular sowing date, rised at first and then fell along with the prolonging seedling ages, with the highest values being found at 20 days of seedling age. Delaying sowing resulted in consistent decreases of peak and final viscosities and the breakdown, which lowered the cooking and eating qualities of rice. Therefore, a high integrated rice qulity can also be obtained when the two-season late japonic rice is sown in the regular sowing period and transplanted with 20 days of seedling age in this region. The low air temperature during grain filling may become a limiting factor to the formation of grinding and cooking and eating qualities for the two-season late japonic rice if it heads lately.

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  • 收稿日期:2020-11-17
  • 最后修改日期:2021-02-03
  • 录用日期:2021-03-23
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