The pod-setting characteristics of 59 materials of mustard (Brassica juncea) which included 30 cytoplasmic sterile lines and 29 maintainers were studied using field investigations in this experiment, molecular markers and cytological observation methods. The results from molecular markers methods indicated 23 of the 59 mustard materials are hau cytoplasmic male sterile lines,7 of the 59 mustard materials were ogu cytoplasmic male sterile line. The results from cytological observation methods showed that siliques of the 29 maintainers、7 ogu cytoplasmic male sterile lines and 5 hau cytoplasmic male sterile lines were plump and vertical, while siliques of the 18 hau cytoplasmic male sterile lines were abnormal to different degree. The flower organ development and anther abortion of hau cytoplasmic male sterile line and Ogu cytoplasmic male sterile line in Brassica juncea using cytological observation. The results showed the characteristic of flower abortion of ogu cytoplasmic male sterile line and hau cytoplasmic male sterile line(normal pods) were the tapetum degraded in advance, while that of hau cytoplasmic male sterile line(abnormal pods) was the formation of stamen-pistil chimera. The results of this study revealed the mechanism of the siliques cytological malformation traits of mustard male sterile lines.