磷锌配施对水稻生长、产量和养分吸收分配的影响
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华中农业大学

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S143.1

基金项目:

国家重点研发计划“肥料养分推荐方法与限量标准”子课题(2016YFD0200108)


Effect of combined application of phosphorus and zinc on rice growth, yield production, nutrient uptake and distribution
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Huazhong Agricultural University

Fund Project:

National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFD0200108)

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    摘要:

    以常规粳稻日本晴和籼型杂交稻广两优35为研究材料,设置不同磷和锌水平交互处理的大田小区试验,分析各生育期水稻的生物量,成熟期产量及构成因素,各部位磷、锌、氮和钾的含量、累积量和分配比例。结果表明,不同水平的磷与锌配施对水稻的生长和产量形成以及养分的吸收分配具有协同效应或是拮抗效应,不同水稻品种表现出不同的磷锌互作效应。在中(80 kg/hm2)、低磷(40 kg/hm2)水平下,增施锌肥对水稻的生物量和产量具有促进效应,但在高磷(120 kg/hm2)水平下,增施锌肥反而降低水稻生物量。磷锌配施下,千粒重和结实率的提高是产量提高的主要原因。适宜水平的磷锌配施不仅提高了植株中磷和锌的含量和累积量,促进磷和锌向生长中心分配,同时还提高了氮和钾的含量和累积量,促进氮向生长中心分配,这可能是水稻产量提高的主要生理机制。

    Abstract:

    Phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) are both essential elements for plant growth and development. There are strong relationships between different nutrients that changing one or more nutrients in the growth medium affects the concentrations of many other nutrients in plants. Phosphorus in the form of Pi can influence the mobility and bioavailability of many metal elements such as iron, manganese, copper, and Zn. Early studies performed in various crop species indicate the existence of a negative relationship between Pi and Zn accumulation in plants. In this study, the indica hybrid rice cultivar Guangliangyou 35 and conventional japonica rice cultivar Nipponbare were treated with combined application of three Zn levels and four P levels in field trials to investigate the effects of combinations of P and Zn on rice growth and yield production, as well as the nutrient utilization. We analyzed the shoot dry weight at different growth stages, the yield and its components at mature stage as well as the P, Zn, N and K concentrations, accumulations and distributions in different organs and tissues. Results showed that the combined application of P and Zn fertilizers had synergistic effect or antagonistic effect on the rice biomass, yield production, the nutrient absorption and distribution. Under the middle- and low P levels, the proper application of Zn increased the rice biomass and yield production. However, under the high P level, the application of Zn decreased the biomass. For different rice cultivars, under different P levels, the proper application of Zn increased the yield. The significantly increased 1000-grain weight and fertility determined the increased yield under the combined application of P and Zn fertilizers. The proper combined application of P and Zn fertilizers not only increased the concentrations of P and Zn in rice plant, but also promoted the P and Zn distribution to the productive organ. Additionally, the proper combined application of P and Zn fertilizers also increased the concentrations of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) in rice plant, as well as the distribution of N to the productive organ, which is one of the main physiological mechanisms of increased yield production under the combined application of P and Zn fertilizers.

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  • 收稿日期:2020-09-02
  • 最后修改日期:2020-10-09
  • 录用日期:2020-10-12
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