The mineralogy and geochemical composition of the cutan and matrix soil in the S5-1 pedon at the Wugong section on the southern Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) was investigated to provide more insight in the characteristics and environmental significance of the cutan in the S5. The broad band between 400-800 cm-1 in the Raman spectrum of the dark cutan was attributed to the groups of Fe and Mn hydroxide/oxide. Enrichment of Mn and free iron (Fed) in the cutan confirmed the presence of Fe-Mn cutan in the S5-1 pedon which signified a periodic reduction under waterlogged conditions during the pedogenesis of S5-1 pedon on the southern CLP. The low permeability of S5-1 pedon as a result of lessivage of clay fraction characterized by high bulk density and low total porosity made the development of a seasonal perched water table possible. It provided favorable environmental conditions for the formation of Fe-Mn cutan. However,the low Mn/Fe ratio in the cutan indicated that the separation and accumulation of iron and manganese in the S5-1 pedon was not up to the level of typical Fe-Mn cutan from subtropical regions. Silicate minerals in the Fe-Mn cutan was almost identical to the matrix soil. The difference of chemical weathering between the cutan and the matrix soil reflected by the Fed/Fet ratio was not epitomized by the mineralogical composition. The subtropical climate prevailed on the southern CLP during the pedogenesis of S5-1 pedon was further confirmed by the occurrence of Fe-Mn cutan.