快速检测作为一种高效方便的检测方式被认为是有效提高食品安全检测和临床诊断能力的重要手段。磁弛豫(magnetic relaxation switching,MRS) 生物传感器因其优良的分析性能、简便的分析流程，已经成为快速检测的新方法、新工具。本研究介绍了基于不同传感原理的磁弛豫生物传感器，综述了近年来国内外磁弛豫生物传感器的最新研究进展，探讨了磁弛豫生物传感器在信号转化机制、纳米磁探针性能、信号放大系统以及传感器稳定性等方面的发展情况。最后，针对目前磁弛豫生物传感器存在的主要问题进行了讨论，并对其未来发展进行了展望。
Rapid detection as an efficient and convenient detection method is considered to be an important means to effectively improve food safety detection and clinical diagnosis capabilities. Magnetic relaxation switching (MRS) biosensor has become a new method and new tool for rapid detection due to its excellent analytical performance and simple analysis process. The development of MRS biosensor began with the discovery of magnetic relaxation. When the state (dispersion or aggregation) of superparamagnetic nanoparticles changes in aqueous solution,the uniformity of its local magnetic field can be changed to form a nonuniform local magnetic field followed by a transverse relaxation speed acceleration of the surrounding water molecules and shortening of the transverse relaxation time. Based on this principle,different biomolecular recognition elements including antibody,enzyme,nucleic acid can be used to assemble MRS biosensor for rapid detection of targets. MRS biosensors can be mainly classified into four types: (1) Magnetic nanoparticles-mediated MRS biosensors,which contain the MRS biosensors based on the state change of magnetic nanoparticles; (2) MRS biosensors based on the number change of magnetic nanoparticles ; (3) MRS biosensors based on the state and number changes of magnetic nanoparticles; (4) Paramagnetic ion mediated MRS biosensors,a novel MRS biosensors based on the spatial dipoledipole interactions between paramagnetic ions (contain multiunpaired electrons) and hydrogen protons. Combined with portable miniature NMR instrument,MRS biosensors can be realized on site quick testing. In this paper,we reviewed the different sensing principles and the progresses of MRS. In addition,we discussed the development and improvement of MRS in the aspects of signal transformation mechanism,the performance of magnetic probe,signal amplification system and biosensor stability. Finally,we discussed the main problems of MRS biosensors. The future development or breakthrough of MRS biosensors in the field of rapid detection was prospected.