柑橘营养特性与“以果定肥”
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国家重点研发计划(2017YFD0202001);国家现代农业(柑橘)产业技术体系(CARS-26)


Nutritional characteristics and determining amount of fertilizer by fruit nutrients removal in citrus
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    摘要:

    氮、磷、钾、钙和镁是柑橘需求量较多的矿质营养,施肥不足既不利于柑橘生长发育也不利于果实高产优质。然而随着柑橘产业的快速发展,氮磷钾肥料逐步由用量不足转向普遍过量,成为我国柑橘单产不高及品质下降的关键诱因。本文分析了柑橘果实产量、品质与肥料用量的关系,指出氮磷钾定量、调比成为最紧迫现实需求,适宜的用量既是柑橘果实高产更是果实优质的需要;归纳比较了国内外柑橘推荐施肥的方法和肥料用量,提出根据柑橘单位果实产量的养分携出量和目标产量推荐肥料用量的方法即“以果定肥”法,对于指导柑橘生产具有重要意义。

    Abstract:

    Nitrogen (N),phosphorus (P),potassium (K),calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) are the mineral nutrients that citrus needs in large number. Insufficient fertilization is not conducive to the growth and development of citrus,nor is it conducive to high yield and quality of fruit. However,with the rapid development of the citrus industry,the application of N,P,K fertilizers have gradually changed from insufficient amounts to generally excessive amounts,which has become a key incentive for the low yield and declining quality of citrus in China. In this paper,the relationships between the yield and quality of citrus fruit and usage of fertilizer were analyzed. It was put forward that the quantification and adjustment of N,P,K rations has become the most urgent practical need. The proper usage is both the high yield and the high quality of citrus fruit. The methods of fertilization and usages of fertilizer for citrus recommended at home and abroad are summarized and compared. A method named as the “determining amount of fertilizer by fruit nutrients removal” method for usage of fertilizer based on the amount of nutrients removal per unit fruit yield and target yield of citrus is proposed. It will be of great significance for guiding citrus production in China.

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武松伟,梁珊珊,谭启玲,陈敏,王诗慧,彭柱青,胡佳玉,胡承孝.柑橘营养特性与“以果定肥”[J].华中农业大学学报,2021,(1):12-21

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  • 收稿日期:2021-01-11
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  • 在线发布日期: 2021-02-10
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