Based on the national household energy data of rural households in CGSS2015, the paper describes the household energy consumption status of rural households, and adopted the tobit regression model to analyze the human capital of rural households. The research started from the perspective of household endowment and energy supply, to test if social capital, economic capital, and the availability of clean energy have an impact on farmers’ clean energy consumption. It is found that clean energy consumption has the characteristics of “cheap high-quality consumption”. Through data analysis, the study revealed that farmers with high human capital and economic capital consume “high-quality” clean energy, but their actual energy expenditures are lower than other farmers’ expenditures on traditional energy sources, resulting in an upside-down phenomenon of grade and cost. In terms of affecting the energy consumption of rural households’ clean energy, both human capital and economic capital have a significant positive impact on the energy consumption and proportion of clean energy used by rural households. From the perspective of farmers’ energy availability, the distance of a farm household from the clean energy supply point is positively correlated with the energy consumption and proportion of clean energy. From the perspective of clean energy expenditure costs, the higher the highest education level in the human capital element, the lower the ratio of clean energy consumption costs to the total energy consumption costs, and the impact of economic capital on farmers’ clean energy consumption expenditures is of positive significance. When it is easier for farmers to obtain clean energy, they will increase their consumption quota and their consumption ratio.